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Archive for  March 2013

Thursday 21, Mar 2013

Spanish Doping Doctor May Shame Football And Other Sports

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Spanish Doping Doctor May Shame Football And Other Sports

The doctor at the center of the massive Operation Puerto blood doping trial has told the court that he would name the clients whose blood has been seized.

Eufemiano Fuentes, who is on trial for allegedly running a doping network in cycling and ran one of sport’s largest blood-doping rings, threatened to name all his former clients. The Spanish doctor made the offer through reporters during Spain’s Operation Puerto trial. Fuentes remarked that if the World Anti-Doping Agency and the Spanish drugs authorities consider that he can be useful and sought his help, he would be willing. He added that this would not be done for a reduced sentence but rather so there is mutual collaboration and also remarked they can have his client list if they want. Till now, only 54 cyclists, including Alberto Contador, Ivan Basso, Jan Ullrich, and Alejandro Valverde, have been personally implicated in the scandal.

Fuentes has admitted to having worked with people in football, tennis, boxing, and athletics and said cycling only comprised 30 percent of his work. This change of heart came as the world governing body of cycling urged the judge to show no leniency. The doctor faces up to two-and-a-half years in jail on public health charges and the five defendants on trial, including the Spanish doctor’s sister, Yolanda, will have one final opportunity to address the court on April 2 before sentencing commences. The defendants have been appearing in court since late January, almost seven years after police seized anabolic steroids, transfusion equipment and blood bags as part of an investigation code-named “Operation Puerto”.

The trial proceedings have attracted international scrutiny and attention as anti-doping authorities are hopeful that it will finally lead to evidence of wrongdoing by athletes in sports other than cycling. Previously, a request by WADA for access to the blood bags was repeatedly denied by the Spanish authorities and the World Anti-Doping Agency awaits the ruling of the judge on their latest petition. Since the current anti-doping legislation of Spain was not in force in 2006 when the police raids took place, the defendants are tried for violating public health regulations with the prosecutor asking for jail sentences of two years.

In the past, German cyclist Joerg Jaksche told the Operation Puerto trial that the treatment he received from the Spanish doctor was designed to beat doping controls and had nothing to do with genuine health issues. Italian rider Ivan Basso, a double Giro d’Italia champion, told the court that he had blood extracted on three occasions at the clinic of another doctor implicated in the case but never had any reinjected. Spanish cyclist Angel Vicioso told the judge he had only met with Eufemiano Fuentes for sporadic medical consultations. Former cyclist Marcos Serrano contradicted testimony from former team director Manolo Saiz, one of the five defendants along with Fuentes, by saying he never personally sought out medical treatment from the disgraced Spanish doctor. Two-time Tour de France winner Alberto Contador who was originally scheduled to appear as a witness was told he would not be required to appear in court after Manolo Saiz’s attorney renounced the witness statement he had requested from the cyclist.

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Wednesday 20, Mar 2013

AOC Chief Says WADA Testing “Ineffective”

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AOC Chief Says WADA Testing Ineffective

Australia’s Olympic chief has said the prescribed testing of the World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA) is ineffective to catch drug cheats and should be supplemented by criminal penalties for athletes who refuse to cooperate with investigations.

The lawmakers in Australia are weighing proposed law changes that would increase the powers of the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA), including giving it the authority to fine people up to A$5,100 ($5,200) for withholding information in an investigation.

The civil penalty would not be enough, Australian Olympic Committee chief John Coates said and pushed the lawmakers to consider adding the threat of a jail term in the proposed amendments. At a Senate hearing in Canberra, Coates remarked there is a case for us to acknowledge that the testing that WADA prescribes, and that is carried out in this country and around the world, is ineffective at catching drug cheats and WADA is not in a position to tell you what to legislate.

The current president of the Australian Olympic Committee and chairman of the Australian Olympic Foundation also added that he thinks the proposed bill is a very big improvement as drafted with the civil penalties, but he certainly thinks there is a case for having criminal penalties.

Last month, Australia has been rocked by a government-released report that found “widespread” doping among professional and amateur athletes Down Under, with the supply of banned drugs fuelled by organized crime. ASADA, in its response to the damning report, announced it was conducting probes into the two most popular football codes in the country, Australian Rules and the National Rugby League.

The proposed changes outlined in the ‘Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority Amendment Bill 2013′ has been described by the top athletes’ association of Australia as as “troubling” and premature. In a submission, the Australian Athletes’ Alliance said the bill would grant powers to ASADA that would be insufficiently defined under the amended legislation and would infringe human rights and principles of best legislative practice. Meanwhile, lawyers have also criticized the compulsory disclosure amendment of the bull as violating the right of a person not to “self-incriminate”. The Australian Olympic Committee has been vocal in the recent past in its stance against drugs cheats and will make athletes competing at the Sochi Winter games next year to sign statutory declarations saying they have no history of doping.

Coates has always been ‘more than just expressive and aggressive’ with words and his warning to catch drug cheats before the London 2012 Games is still remembered by some. He remarked the IOC will continue re-testing stored samples after the Games and said the International Olympic Committee is working with government agencies to ensure an essential flow of information in the fight against doping. He also remarked that it is important that ASADA in Australia remains ready and resourced to retest the samples they are already stored as new forms of analysis and information from customs, and other government agencies increasingly becoming available. He recently told a Senate Committe hearing that just because Australia is already a world leader in the fight against drugs in sport does not mean it should not further intensify the fight against drug cheats.

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Tuesday 19, Mar 2013

Blame Swimmers Not Coaches For London Flop, says Nick D’Arcy

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Blame Swimmers Not Coaches For London Flop, says Nick D’Arcy

Controversial 25-year-old Nick D’Arcy believes his fellow swimmers have to take responsibility for the disappointing show of Australia in the London Olympic pool last year rather than blaming coaches and team management.

D’Arcy, who swam well outside his personal best to crash out of the 200 meters butterfly in the semi-finals in London, remarked the review of team culture released on Tuesday was deliberately inflammatory. According to the Bluestone review, team management had failed to prevent a “toxic culture” from developing in the swimming squad that produced the worst Olympic results by Australia in 20 years.

It was disclosed by the review that the abuse of prescription drugs and alcohol and flouting of curfews and bullying had gone unchecked and contributed to the under-performance.

D’Arcy added some of the things outlined there were designed to be more inflammatory than anything else and also went on to say he thinks we are just trying to look for excuses and trying to pass the buck. The swimmer added he certainly didn’t perform the way he would have liked to and takes full personal responsibility for that.

Meanwhile, Swimming Australia has appointed a panel to investigate allegations of drunkenness, misuse of prescription drugs, breaching curfews, deceit and bullying by members of the London Olympic team. In a news release, Swimming Australia president Barclay Nettlefold said we have to investigate these allegations and deal with them appropriately by putting in place the right framework to establish the right culture. Nettlefold added he will be encouraging the panel to look at each allegation and we want to stop talking about rumors and act on the facts of what did or did not actually occur.

Swimming Australia remarked six members of the men’s 4x100m freestyle relay team had come forward to discuss a team bonding session at a training camp in Manchester before the Games. The squad (James Magnussen, Matt Targett, Eamon Sullivan, James Roberts, Cameron McEvoy, and Tommaso D’Orsogna) arrived in London confident of winning the gold, but ended up fourth in the final.

The panel, comprising former Australian Rugby Union chairman Peter McGrath and three members of the SA board, will start work on their investigations immediately.

An Independent Swimming Review into the high performance program at Swimming Australia commissioned by the Australian Sports Commission made 35 recommendations for improvements and alleged that some team members had been subjected to initiation rituals involving Stilnox – a sedative banned by the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) just before the Games. The prescription drug Stilnox was banned by the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) just before the 2012 Games and James Magnussen and his teammates from the Australian men’s 4x100m freestyle relay squad who admitted to using the sedative now face sanctions from the governing body for breaching their Olympic team membership agreement. The six swimmers said in a statement read out at a news conference we stand here collectively to confirm that we did take part in a bonding exercise during which members of the relay team took Stilnox.

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Monday 18, Mar 2013

Blood-Doping Doctor Should Be Put In Jail, Says Prosecutor

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Blood-Doping Doctor Should Be Put In Jail, Says Prosecutor

Spanish prosecutors have called for a jail term of two years for a doctor at the center of a high-profile blood doping racket in professional cycling as they wound up their case.

Eufemiano Fuentes should be imprisoned as he was the “soul and ideologist” of a “fraudulent and punishable” network that was intended to improve sports performance in lieu of money, public prosecutor Rosa Calero said. The doctor and four co-accused are presently on trial and accused of endangering public health by performing blood transfusions on a number of high-profile cyclists. The five are however not facing incitement to doping charges that was not a crime in the country at the time of their arrests in 2006 as part of Spain’s Operation Puerto police probe.

However, Calero remarked the criminal code of Spain still provided for imprisonment. She added the article states that those who supply deteriorated or out-of-date medicines, or those that do not comply with the technical requirement of their composition, stability or efficiency, or substitute a few medicines for others, put in danger the life or health of those people to whom the medicine is supplied. Calero also added that the method followed by Fuentes of carrying blood bags in backpacks to hotels surrounded by cold drinks to keep them at the required temperature “neglected hygienic standards and generated a clear risk to the health” of the recipients.

Lucia Pedreno, another lawyer representing the state, laid out evidence against the other four accused and their roles in the operations of Fuentes. Manolo Saiz and Vicente Belda in their roles as team directors of the Liberty Seguros and Kelme cycling teams respectively were key collaborators in introducing Fuentes to clients who were part of their teams, said Pedreno.

The cycling clients of Fuentes are believed to include at least one former teammate of disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong and dozens of other cyclists who raced against him. Fuentes disclosed during the trial that he treated not just cyclists, but also players from different sports like soccer and boxing. The star witness of prosecutors is Jesus Manzano, a former cyclist who collapsed during the 2003 Tour de France after a treatment from Fuentes. Manzano testified in the court that Fuentes injected him with 50 milliliters of Oxyglobin, a drug made for dogs, and added that the doctor hid steroids in empty wine bottles and handed out mysterious pills.

Meanwhile, the sport’s ruling body’s president Pat Mcquaid said the cycling community has moved over from the Lance Armstrong doping scandal and UCI’s doping process has now been properly equipped to counter the doping challenge. McQuaid added the issue would not be a deterrent for young cyclists to come into cycling and they should view icons like Mark Cavendish and Bradley Wiggins who can be their role models. He also remarked that the now-banned cyclist doped 10 to 15 years back and he used products that were undetectable at that time. Now, the UCI has come up with much stronger and much sophisticated process of halting doping such as biological passport.

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Sunday 17, Mar 2013

Federer And Murray Welcome Biological Passports

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Federer and murray welcome biological passports

Roger Federer and Andy Murray, two tennis stars who have been outspoken in recent times to make a call for more stringent anti-doping measures in tennis, have welcomed the introduction of biological passports for players.

A few days back, the International Tennis Federation announced the move in London after a meeting of the Tennis Anti-Doping Program working group that includes representatives from the ITF, ATP, WTA, and grand slam tournaments. There was unanimous support for the introduction of the passport, which is used to detect variances in biological make-up that might indicate doping and has been introduced in cycling, the ITF said.

As Federer prepared to launch his defense of the Indian Wells ATP Masters title, he said that is a good news and added we have to do everything to ensure our tour is as clean as it possibly can be so that the cheaters think twice, that they get caught if they do cheat. The former world no. 1 added he believed the players were prepared to accept the measures, even though increased testing means more intrusion into the lives of players. He noted one reason was the long-delayed admission by cyclist Lance Armstrong that he used banned drugs in all seven of his Tour de France victories. The disgraced cyclist recently made a confession on a talk show after being stripped of the titles and given a lifetime ban from cycling for his role in systematic doping on his US Postal Service team.

The cycling issue has been around for quite some time, but what happened this year was obviously super-extreme and I think that really gets you sort of thinking, said the Swiss professional tennis player who, as of March 2013, is ranked world No. 2 by the ATP.

ATP executive chairman and president Brad Drewett said the men’s circuit was behind the move and the players are clear that they support increased investment in anti-doping and we feel that this is the most effective way to show the world that tennis is a clean sport.

US Open champion Andy Murray of Scotland also welcomed the move by the ITF and said it is one of the best ways to ensure your sport stays as clean as possible and it’s good tennis has made that jump.

The biological profiling system is considered as one of the most effective methods of detecting the use of performance enhancing drugs and blood boosters like EPO. The The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is an electronic record of an athlete’s biological values, which is developed over time from multiple collections of blood samples.

ITF President Francesco Ricci Bitti said the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport is an important step in the evolution of the Tennis Anti-Doping Program as it provides us with a great tool in the fight against doping in our sport and added we also hope to have increased support from the national anti-doping agencies around the world who need to do their part if we are to win this battle and make our program more effective.

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Saturday 16, Mar 2013

Jamaican Sprinter Loses Appeal Against Life Ban

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Jamaican sprinter loses appeal against life ban

Jamaican sprinter Steve Mullings has lost his appeal against a lifetime ban from athletics, according to an announcement by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

Mullings appealed against a lifetime ban from athletics, imposed in November 2011 for a second doping offense after the 30-year-old who won a gold medal in the 4×100 meter relay at the 2009 world championships in Berlin, tested positive for testosterone in 2004 and for the banned diuretic furosemide in 2011. It was argued by the sprinter that there were problems with the 2004 positive test meaning it should not be counted as a first sanction for a doping offense but CAS rejected his arguments. Mullings went on to claim that the laboratory results of the 2011 test were unreliable and that the disciplinary proceedings were flawed.

The Court of Arbitration for Sport said proceedings were delayed as it collected evidence from both tests and disclosed that the CAS panel considered that the athlete had not presented any basis to challenge the testing procedure of the 2011 sample and the CAS panel did not find that the circumstances surrounding the first offense warranted a more lenient sanction while Mullings has attempted to raise suspicion about his first violation.

Mullings was sanctioned with a suspension of two years following a positive anti-doping control (methyltestoterone) in 2004. He provided an in-competition sample in June 2011 at the National Senior Championships in Jamaica which was tested at the WADA-accredited laboratory in Quebec, Canada, and which returned an adverse analytical finding for the presence of Furosemide, the prohibited substance. After this, disciplinary proceedings were opened by the Jamaican anti-doping authorities against Steve Mullings that resulted in a decision to suspend him for life for a second anti-doping offense. The athlete appealed  to the CAS on 19 December 2011 to request the annulment of the decision made by the JADCO Disciplinary Panel.

The case was handled by a CAS Panel composed of Mr David W. Rivkin, President (USA), Mr Christopher L. Campbell (USA), and Prof. Richard H. McLaren (Canada) who considered that Mullings had not presented any basis to challenge the testing procedure of the 2011 sample and the CAS panel did not find that the circumstances surrounding the first offense did warrant a lenient sanction while Mullings has attempted to raise suspicion about the first violation, and accordingly, it confirmed the lifetime ban.

The former sprint athlete who specialized in the 100 and 200 meter events began his international athletic career with a bronze medal win in the 100 m at the Pan American Junior Championships. Steve Mullings made his first impact in senior athletics at the 2004 national championship, setting new bests of 10.04 and 20.22 in the sprints, and finishing as the 200 m national champion. After being banned from competition for two years for testing positive for testosterone, the sprinter returned to competition in 2006 and competed at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics as a heats runner for the Jamaican silver medal-winning 4×100 meters relay team.

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Friday 15, Mar 2013

Bombers Launch Review After Scandal

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Bombers Launch Review After Scandal

An independent review of Essendon’s governance and processes has been announced after revelations last month that the club is involved in a doping investigation. This review will be led by former Telstra chief executive Dr Ziggy Switkowski who will draw on the assistance of Dr Andrew Garnham, a specialist sports physician with particular expertise in sports nutrition.

The review comes three weeks after Essendon asked for assistance from the Australian Football League (AFL) and the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) in reviewing the 2012 supplements program of the club. The board is now aware of “irregular practices” at the club, Bombers chairman David Evans said who also added he could not elaborate on what has been uncovered. The team chairman also revealed that there was no timeline set for the review, but he expects it to be completed before the ASADA investigation.

The investigation will look into unnamed supplements that the club gave to players after it was revealed that Essendon players took substances that are banned under the World Anti-Doping Agency code. This review will also be investigating practices in other clubs and other sports to measure the actions and processes of Essendon against best practice and added that members of the club deserve to know what happened, and to have faith the club will take responsibility to fix any problems and added he expects findings of the review to be made public.

Evans further remarked it is difficult for him to reveal anything as there is an investigation going on which he does not want to compromise the integrity of that investigation or compromise the review he just announced. However, the Bombers chairman said no player has tested positive for any performance enhancing substance and the review will start with the governance of the club, from the board level down.

Recently, players of the club met with Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency (ASADA) representatives to be told about the next stage of an investigation that is expected to take months. Evans remarked the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency outlined the process for the investigation to continue, including interviews with players to determine if a prohibited substance had been administered. The team has also been named in an Australian Crime Commission (ACC) investigation that found the suspected use of performance enhancing drugs by their players, possibly without their knowledge.

Essendon midfielder Brent Stanton said there are still reasons for optimism that the club will not face the same sort of fallout that has enveloped NRL club Cronulla over an investigation about doping.

In another development, the parents of Essendon players with club officials at the Bombers’ Windy Hills headquarters to seek information as well as assurances in the wake of the performance enhancing drug scandal. Meanwhile, former Bombers sports scientist Stephen Dank said he did not administer any banned substances to players during his time with the club. Three-time premiership winner Tim Watson, father of Brownlow medalist and the current Bombers captain Jobe, said we are very satisfied that our boys are in good hands and the club is doing all they possibly can under the circumstances to clear their names.

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Thursday 14, Mar 2013

Tennis’s Biological Passport Idea Criticized By Anti-Doping Expert

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Tennis’s Biological Passport Idea Criticized By Anti-Doping Expert

Don Catlin, considered to be one of the founders of modern drug-testing and one of the sport’s most respected anti-doping experts, has issued a damning indictment of attempts by tennis to step up its drug testing program and questioned whether it has the money or the desire to make it work.

Last week, tennis officials announced that tennis is to adopt the athlete biological passport that effectively tests for the likely existence of drugs rather than for specific substances. Catlin remarked he would tell them not to bother and they are better off to increase the number of tests they do rather than spend it all on the passport. The anti-doping expert added that doubling or tripling urine tests would be of more value than starting a passport because you need such a long lead-in and you need data over four or five years. The man behind the renowned UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory believes the sport is reacting to pressure rather than tackling the big problems for the right reasons.

Now president and chief executive officer of Anti-Doping Research, a company in Los Angeles, Catlin added that it is always hard to be critical of someone when they’re trying to do something that’s worthwhile and tennis would have done better if it was able to start with the top 100 male players and then test them five times a year but tennis cannot afford to do that or does not want to.

The athlete biological passport creates individual blood profiles instead of testing for specific, performance enhancing drugs and a doping case may be opened if athletes deviate from set parameters over time. Tennis has already tested for erythropoietin through urine and human growth hormone through blood.

In signing up to the passport, the funding partners in the program: the International Tennis Federation (ITF), the Association of Tennis Professionals, Women’s Tennis Association, and four grand slam events, agreed to increase their contributions, lifting the overall budget to an estimated $3.5m. However, Catlin remarked he thought the budget was still way too low.

The International Tennis Federation defended the decision to adopt the passport in a statement and said the Anti-Doping Working Group has identified the introduction of biological passports as a key enhancement of the detection and deterrence of doping under the Tennis Anti-Doping Program and the implementation of the passport in accordance with Wada’s [the World Anti-Doping Agency] recommendations, including the required budget, is now being discussed by the four parties in the program.

Things will barely change unless tennis finds significantly more money to do enough tests, Catlin said and added tennis is way behind other sports, in my opinion and doping is never going to go away and there needs to be independent testing.

Meanwhile, Roger Federer applauded the announcement that tennis will introduce biological passports for players and urged the sport to make the ATP Tour “as clean as it possibly can be” with a broad approach. The 17-time grand slam winner Federer said he thinks tennis has done a good job of trying everything to be as clean as possible but we are entering a new era.

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Wednesday 13, Mar 2013

People Will Forgive Me, Says Lance Armstrong

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People Will Forgive Me, Says Lance Armstrong

Disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong has claimed the time is not far when the public will forgive him for being the biggest drug cheat in the history of the sport, just as they did Bill Clinton for his affair while in office.

Armstrong said Clinton is his hero and a tough guy. He added that the former president is smart and has surrounded himself with good people and he is president of the world a decade later, it can be done. Lance added his aim is to  ‘put a stake in the ground’ before things can improve. Armstrong remarked that he saw the rehabilitation of the former President as a model for his own and he will be back on the top again in a decade. The banned cyclist, with breathtaking arrogance, said Bill Clinton was a ‘hero of mine’ and that he wanted to emulate him and become ‘president of the world’.

The cyclist who was stripped of his seven consecutive Tour de France titles denied being a bully and said he was only ever ‘defiant’ and bragged about having his own ‘constituency’ as if he were already on the campaign trail. The comments of Lance Armstrong reinforce the view of many that the cyclist is unrepentant for doping which helped him stayed on top of the sport for long. The cyclist was banned for life and stripped of his Tour wins, his Olympic bronze medal was taken away, his sponsor deserted him, and Armstrong was forced to step down from the board of his cancer charity Livestrong. Many were horrified that he did not cry and that he did not express any regret during his ‘tell all’ confessional with Oprah Winfrey. His recent interview demonstrates that the 41-year-old cyclist is even more cold and calculating now than he appeared in the past.

The 41-year-old banned cyclist denied he ever bullied anyone, which is a claim that his former teammates would dispute for sure. The cyclist has been sued by former teammate Floyd Landis and he is reportedly being investigated by the FBI for witness tampering, obstruction of justice, and intimidation. His woes multiplied in the recent times with the US government deciding to join a doping lawsuit filed by Landis alleging that the disgraced cyclist defrauded government sponsors by using performance enhancing drugs while on the state-funded US Postal Service team. In a statement, Armstrong attorney Robert Luskin said Lance and his representatives worked constructively over these last weeks with federal lawyers to resolve this case fairly, but those talks failed because we disagree about whether the Postal Service was damaged.

The lawsuit was based on the False Claims Act, which allows citizens to sue for alleged fraud against the government and receive as much as a third of any money recovered and plaintiffs can recover as much as triple the amount of the 1999 to 2004 sponsorship, which was worth an estimated $30 million (£19.7 million). In addition to this lawsuit, Texas insurance firm SCA Promotions lodged a suit against Lance Armstrong seeking $12 million (£7.9 million) for bonus money paid to him for the Tour de France triumphs that are now null and void.

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Tuesday 12, Mar 2013

Five 2005 World Medalists Caught

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Five 2005 World Medalists Caught

Five medal-winning athletes have been caught doping after samples from the 2005 World Championships were recently tested again.

One of the five was Belarusian shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk, who won gold in Helsinki and was stripped of her London Olympic gold medal for doping while the other two champions from 2005 were the hammer throwers Ivan Tsikhan of Belarus and Olga Kuzenkova of Russia. Long-jumper Tatyana Kotova, who won silver in 2005 and 2003 and Kotova also won gold at the 2002 European Championships, when GB’s Jade Johnson was fourth, is another caught. Vadim Devyatovskiy of Belarus who claimed silver in the men’s hammer, and countryman Andrei Mikhnevich, who did not win a medal in Helsinki but was world champion in 2003, were also caught.

Vladislav Piskunov of Ukraine who had finished 12th in the men’s Hammer Throw, and Neelam Jaswant Singh of India who was 9th in Group A of the women’s Discus Throw qualification, had already been sanctioned and disqualified for doping violations at the 2005 IAAF World Championships, Helsinki, Finland.

It is obvious that the substances involved in the doping cases will all merit sanctions in the serious doping category that includes anabolic steroids. This means that there would generally be an automatic ban of two years for first offenders and others with past doping history could face longer bans. Last year, the International Association of Athletics Federations retested samples taken in Helsinki and Nick Davies, deputy general secretary of the governing body, said the retesting had been carried out eight years after the event to capitalize on the latest equipment and technology. These samples had been transferred to the WADA-accredited laboratory in Lausanne, Switzerland following the World Championships for long-term storage in accordance with the IAAF retesting policy. Davies said we have an eight-year statute of limitations on anti-doping, so seven years past the event is really when you want to test, using the most up-to-date equipments. Athletes can be sanctioned for a violation up to eight years after they provide their urine or blood samples for a drug test under the World Anti-Doping Code.

About 100 samples were tested, from a range of events and nationalities, remarked Davies and explained that Russians were more likely to be tested than most nationalities due to the fact there were more of them in the IAAF testing pool. The deputy general secretary of the governing body remarked Russia is the second-most successful nation behind the United States and as a result we are testing more Russian athletes more often.

IAAF President Lamine Diack said the message of the International Association of Athletics Federations to cheaters is increasingly clear that, with constant advancements being made in doping detection, there is no place to hide and this re-testing is just the latest example of the IAAF’s firm resolve to expose cheating in our sport. The IAAF will continue to do everything in its power to ensure the credibility of competition, and where the rules have been broken, will systematically uncover the cheats. Diack says the findings confirm the sport’s commitment to rooting out those suspected of foul play.

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