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Archive for  September 2015

Tuesday 29, Sep 2015

Belfort Tested For Elevated Testosterone Before UFC 152

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Vitor “The Phenom” Belfort, the Brazilian mixed martial artist and former UFC Light Heavyweight Champion, has been the subject of heavy scrutiny and multiple controversies in the past and has found himself again in a controversy.

A special investigation has revealed the UFC 12 Heavyweight Tournament Champion tested positive for elevated testosterone in the state of Nevada just less than three weeks before fight night with Jon Jones at UFC 152 in Toronto. A document has revealed that the free testosterone levels of Vitor Belfort were two and half times high above the average for a man his age. This news emerged after the results that were supposed to be sent via email to three UFC executives were accidentally sent “to a group of 29 fighters, trainers, and managers,” including longtime MMA manager Monte Cox.

The UFC immediately went into damage control mode and sent another mass email that ordered the unintended recipients to delete the emails. The special investigation was penned by Josh Gross. A prominent fighter who saw the results came to the conclusion that Belfort had cheated and that the UFC had covered it up, according to Gross.

The special investigation had revealed that the administered test of Belfort on September 1, 2012 by Dr. Pierce measured 1038 nanograms of testosterone per deciliter. A person in the age range of Vitor Belfort is more likely to be in the 700s. His free testosterone levels were clearly elevated as the acceptable range listed on LabCorp metrics—standards vary between laboratories—is 8.7 to 25.1 picograms, or a trillionth of a gram, per milliliter while Belfort’s free testosterone registered 47.7 pg/ml.

The manager of disgraced pound-for-pound Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) star Jon Jones said Jones was not happy with the hidden positive test result of Belfort. Malki Kawa, the manager of Jon Jones, said Jones is very angry about this. Jones defeated “The Phenom” inside Air Canada Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada via fourth-round submission. Jones is angry because the UFC knew of the results and failed to disclose them to the Jones and the public. Belfort, a known user of performance enhancing drugs, injured the elbow of Jones in the fight.

Welterweight champion Ben Askren came in support of Jon Jones. Askren compared handling of the Belfort result by the UFC to the UFC 182 pre-fight test for cocaine metabolites of Jones, a test that was never supposed to be made public. Askren said it is hilarious that Jon Jones tested positive for cocaine in a test which he should not have been tested for as they are not supposed to test for recreational drugs outside of competition while Belfort tested positive for a substance, or was over the limits for a substance he wasn’t supposed to be using, and that was covered up.

In June 2014, Belfort had admitted that he tested positive for testosterone levels outside the therapeutic range in February. Following the drug test, all Testosterone Replacement Therapy exemptions were abolished by the Nevada State Athletic Commission and the Brazilian mixed martial artist withdrew from his UFC middleweight title bout with Chris Weidman.

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Sunday 27, Sep 2015

Nick Diaz Banned For Life By UFC

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The UFC has given a “lifetime ban” to Welterweight Nick Diaz after a suspension of five years was imposed on the former American mixed martial artist who is currently signed with the Ultimate Fighting Championship.

Diaz failed a third positive test for marijuana and his suspension could most certainly end his time in the Octagon. The 33-year-old Diaz tested positive for marijuana metabolites following his fight with Anderson Silva at UFC 183 on 31 January. Diaz however passed two other drug tests on fight night.

The controversy comes in that two other samples of Nick Diaz passed drug tests analyzed by the Sports Medicine Research and Testing Laboratory (SMRTL) that is acknowledged and accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The third failed test, that was administered in-between the two clean tests, was analyzed by a different agency in Quest Diagnostics. The team of Diaz claims that the results were “scientifically unreliable” given that the results of SMRTL were reached using the higher standard of drug testing protocols of WADA.

The fight between Silva-Diaz was ruled a no-contest after Anderson Silva tested positive for anabolic steroids and received a doping ban of one year and fined $380,000.

In 2007, Diaz was suspended by the NSAC for six months after he tested positive for Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In 2012, Diaz was banned for a year for testing positive for marijuana metabolites following a defeat to Carlos Condit.

On Monday, the Nevada State Athletic Commission met to discuss Diaz’s third failed test. NSAC commissioner Skip Avansino said a five-year ban would essentially be the same as “a lifetime [ban] for [Diaz].” The NSAC voted unanimously to ban Diaz for five years, meaning he would not be eligible to make a return until 2020. The UFC fighter was also fined $165,000. Diaz was present during the hearing but decided not to answer any question. Commissioner Pat Lundvall had to force Diaz to verbally plead the fifth in his stance of silence during the hearing that had around 30 questions.

Upon hearing the verdict, Diaz spoke to media and labeled the Commission a “bunch of dorks”. Diaz’s attorney, Lucas Middlebrook, said his client will appeal against the ban after a decision was made in what he claimed to be a “kangaroo court”. The argument of Middlebrook is based on the failed test of Diaz containing five times the legal limit of marijuana metabolites while the other two tests were well below the allowable level. Middlebrook argues that the results cannot be judged to be reliable given the difference between the failed test and the two clean tests.

Middlebrook also said a box marked “observed” was not filled in by the collector that means Nick Diaz may have been unsupervised when he provided it. It was also added that the name of Diaz was included on the sample when all tests are meant to be anonymous to remove any bias and prevent tampering. However, the NSAC remained unmoved and stood by its decision and defended the testing techniques of Quest despite Diaz being a registered medical-marijuana user.

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Friday 25, Sep 2015

Rafael Palmeiro Signs Contract With Sugar Land Skeeters

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Disgraced slugger Rafael Palmeiro has signed a contract with independent Sugar Land Skeeters that will make the twenty-year MLB veteran play final three games of the season alongside son Patrick, an infielder with the Texas club.

Rafael Palmeiro, who has not played professional baseball in more than a decade, signed the contact with the Sugar Land Skeeters of the independent Atlantic League, an eight-team association outside Major League Baseball’s traditional farm system. In a release issued by the club, the 50-year-old Palmeiro said we discussed me playing earlier this year and it is something that he has looked forward to since then. Rafael added the chance to play with his son is an opportunity the Skeeters have offered me and he is very excited to make it happen this weekend.

The return of Palmeiro comes a decade after an illustrious major league career that was all set for the Hall of Fame until a positive test for Stanozolol (Winstrol), an anabolic steroid, was revealed just five months after Rafael Palmeiro emphatically denied under oath of ever using performance enhancing drugs. Rafael continues to maintain he never made use of anabolic steroids intentionally.

A four-time All-Star who played 20 major league seasons with the Chicago Cubs, Texas Rangers, and Baltimore Orioles, Palmeiro retired with 569 home runs and 3,020 hits that made him one of only five players in the history of Major League Baseball to be a member of both the 500-home run and 3,000-hit clubs — Hank Aaron, Willie Mays, Eddie Murray, and Alex Rodriguez are the others.

This is not the first time the minor-league club based in Sugar Land has made headlines with an unusual signing. In 2012, a pair of starts for the Skeeters was made by Roger Clemens, the seven-time Cy Young Award winner named 82 times in the Mitchell Report on steroid use in baseball, when he was 50 years old. Last year, seven-time NBA All-Star Tracy McGrady made the opening day roster of the Skeeters as a pitcher. McGrady made four appearances, allowing four hits and five runs while recording a 6.75 ERA in 6 2/3 innings.

The retired Cuban American Major League Baseball first baseman and left fielder played for the Cubs (1986–1988), Texas Rangers (1989–1993, 1999–2003), and the Baltimore Orioles (1994–1998, 2004–2005). Rafael was named to the MLB All-Star Team four times and also has the distinction of winning the Gold Glove three times. Palmeiro was a part of 2,831 major league games, which is the most by any player who never participated in the World Series. Palmeiro was identified as a fellow steroid user by former Rangers teammate José Canseco in his 2005 book, Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant ‘Roids, Smash Hits & How Baseball Got Big. Canseco claimed he personally injected Rafael Palmeiro with anabolic androgenic steroids. Palmeiro appeared at a Congressional hearing on March 17, 2005 about steroids in baseball and denied ever using steroids while under oath. Palmeiro was suspended for ten days on August 1, 2005 after he tested positive for an anabolic steroid.

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Wednesday 23, Sep 2015

Kai Greene Banned from 2015 Mr. Olympia

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Kai Greene, considered by many as one of the best professional bodybuilders in the world, has been banned from 2015 Mr. Olympia because of “late registration”.

Greene, one of the most recognizable bodybuilding figures and a veteran for more than two decades, announced his ban in a tearful video on YouTube. Kai Greene did not get into the reasons for the ban but remarked there may be another project in the works of the Mr. Olympia competition. The American IFBB professional bodybuilder was the first runner up (2nd Place) at the 2012, 2013, and 2014 Mr. Olympia competition.

Phil Heath, who defeated Kai Greene in 2013 and 2014, to bag the top spot also emerged victorious at this year’s Mr. Olympia.

According to media rumors, Greene could have asked for a promotional booth for free and this caused him into a standoff with the event coordinators. However, speculations were soon out after a statement placing the blame squarely on Greene was released by Mr. Olympia promoter Robin. It was remarked by Robin that Kai has had his Olympia contract since April but refused to sign it for reasons known only to Kai and added this is the same contract Kai has signed for the past 6 years. The Mr. Olympia promoter added nothing but the dates have changed and there is no truth in the news that Kai Greene was banned from competing as he was sent the contract and he was not even banned from the expo as reported by some.

Immediately after news about Greene’s ban emerged, it was announced by high-ranking official and former Mr. Olympia judge Lee Thompson that he is starting Nspire Physique Champions Global, his own bodybuilding organization, which has already attracted some of the biggest names in the world of professional bodybuilding.

Kai Greene was the favorite to win the competition this year. He had finished second in each of the last three years at the IFBB’s annual Mr. Olympia bodybuilding competition.

Greene, dubbed one of the most inspirational athletes of his time, recently entered into a partnership with Isolator Fitness, Inc. to create Kai Greene Collection that will include a new line of meal management Isobag Lunch Coolers. The 2-time Arnold Classic Champion and star of the critically acclaimed 2013 film Generation Iron, Greene has over 5 million combined fans on his social media platforms.

Kai Greene was introduced to the idea of teenage competition by his seventh grade English teacher. Greene soon became an enthusiastic bodybuilder and competed in the National Physique Committee (NPC). Greene won the 1999 NPC Team Universe and took a break of five years from competitions before he re-emerged into the bodybuilding arena and won the 2004 NPC Team Universe contest. In 2011, Greene started working with preparation coach George Farah. He was placed first in the 2011 New York Pro Championship and his third place win at Mr. Olympia in 2011 qualified him for the 2012 contest in Las Vegas. Greene launched his own supplement brand “Dynamik muscle” in 2015.

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Monday 21, Sep 2015

Doping Suspicions In Football Dismissed By UEFA

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European soccer body UEFA has dismissed the notion that the use of performance enhancing drugs could be common among top footballers. The governing body of football in Europe made this comment after a study, which was published in a monthly science journal this month, showed a high number of suspicious testosterone levels.

This study was based on 4,195 urine samples taken mainly from players who featured in the Champions League between 2008 and 2013. Results of the samples were analyzed by scientists from 12 anti-doping laboratories in Europe. No “B” samples were taken, UEFA said and the governing body also said no additional analysis was conducted to confirm whether the high testosterone levels were due to doping or not.

The UEFA-commissioned study disclosed that high testosterone levels were found in urine samples of 7.7 percent of 879 players involved in the Champions League, Europa League, and two European Championships between 2008-13 who were tested by researchers and these high testosterone levels could indicate the use of anabolic steroids. This research was never publicized by UEFA and it came to light in a report by German broadcaster ARD on Sunday. However, UEFA did announce that steroid use by players was being added this season to its biological passport program.

Commenting on the research, UEFA said the study simply shows that the introduction of steroidal biological passport in football would be beneficial by offering further analysis possibilities in case of atypical test results. The European soccer body also added it has had a very thorough anti-doping program for many years with over 2000 tests a year and only two occurrences of positive tests, both for recreational drugs, which proves that doping in football is extremely rare.

UEFA also said this study does not present any scientific evidence of potential doping in football especially due to the presence of confounding factors, the lack of standardization procedures among the 12 laboratories, and the quantification of steroid profiles when the samples were collected. It added there was an inability to perform a second analysis as required now by the WADA international standards for laboratories.

The soccer body also said the study simply shows that the introduction of steroidal biological passport in football would be beneficial by offering further analysis possibilities in case of atypical test results and also remarked it has now implemented a new steroid profiling program which has come into operation at the start of the 2015/16 season. Players in UEFA competitions, including Euro 2016 and the Champions League, will give more than 2,000 urine or blood. UEFA also said players who could be selected for the 24-team European tournament in France can be tested from January. It also said the program will boost the already strong deterrent effect of UEFA’s testing program, as it will help better detect the effects of doping over time, thereby complementing existing direct anti-doping testing.

Recently, FIFA and UEFA medical committee chairman Michel D’Hooghe said doping control and the fight against doping is an absolute top priority both for the medical commission of FIFA and UEFA. D’Hooghe also added UEFA wants to start with pre-tournament out-of-competition doping control, blood as well as urine, precisely with the intention of controlling all the players and to establish a biological passport for all of the players.

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Saturday 19, Sep 2015

Salazar Cleared By UK Anti-Doping Review

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An independent audit set up by UK Athletics has disclosed that there was “no reason” to lack confidence in the training program ran by Alberto Salazar at the Nike Oregon Project. The audit findings said there was also “no reason” to be concerned about other British athletes or coaches are involved with the program.

This news came as a huge relief for Mo Farah, Salazar’s most successful athlete, who remarked throughout he would stick by his coach unless there was clear evidence of wrongdoing. The clearance of Salazar by UK Anti-Doping also comes as a relief for British Athletics performance director Neil Black and head of endurance Barry Fudge, who have been working closely with Alberto Salazar.

A few months back, the performance oversight group was established in the wake of an investigation by the US news website ProPublica and BBC’s Panorama that alleged that Alberto had violated a series of anti-doping rules, including giving Testosterone to Galen Rupp, Farah’s training partner. This oversight group composed of Jason Gardener, Dr Sarah Rowell, and Anne-Wafula Strike.

In a statement, UK Athletics said it could not offer full details of the review as of now as the United States Anti-Doping Agency had asked them not to while they continue their investigations into the coach. UK Athletics added the group’s findings restated their view that there was no evidence of any impropriety on the part of Mo Farah and no reason to lack confidence in his training program. UK Athletics also said there was no reason to have any concern about the engagement of other British athletes and coaches with the Oregon Project. It was said the review established that the vast majority of the endurance program’s interaction with the Oregon Project is in fact focused on Mo Farah, with very little other UK Athletics related activity. It was also added that coaching and support for Mo Farah will remain the focus of our engagement with the Oregon Project.

Salazar and Farah have both denied any involvement with doping and performance enhancing drugs.

For many, it comes as no surprise especially after the head of British Athletics, Neil Black, insisted in August this year that he is “really comfortable” with the fact that his organization is still working closely with Salazar.

Steve Magness, whose allegations against Salazar were a key part of Panorama’s documentary, said he was “disappointed but not surprised” that an audit set up by UK Athletics found no evidence of wrongdoing. Magness remarked while he has respect for the athletes who conducted the investigation, they were given an impossible task, given that they could only look at the interaction between UK Athletics and the group in Oregon and added considering most of that interaction was above anyone’s pay-grade who stepped forward in the investigation, the results could only ever go one way. Magness, also criticized UK Athletics for its approach since the allegations surfaced, and said he thinks we all need to realize that as the national governing body you send the message of what the entire sport stands for in your country. Magness added it is clear UK Athletics is sending a message that performance is all we care about, everything else be damned.

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Thursday 17, Sep 2015

Ferrari And Former Sky Doctor Named In WADA’s Banned List

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The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has named Michele Ferrari, Lance Armstrong’s long-term training guru, and Team Sky’s former doctor, Belgian Geert Leinders, in a list of 114 banned support personnel.

The 62-year-old Italian doctor was banned from working with Italian athletes in 2002 and was blocked worldwide by the United States Anti-Doping Agency case against disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong. USADA investigations revealed that Armstrong was given Testosterone, EPO, and blood transfusions by Michele Ferrari during the years when Armstrong won seven consecutive Tour de France titles. Later, Armstrong received a lifetime ban and was stripped of all his seven titles and later admitted to making use of banned performance enhancing drugs.

The case against Leinders was based principally on the testimony of Danish rider Michael Rasmussen and Levi Leipheimer of the United States. The two former Rabobank riders revealed the role of Leinders in doping when questioned by USADA in connection with Lance Armstrong in 2012. USADA charged Leinders with possession, trafficking and administering banned substances including testosterone, insulin, DHEA, erythropoietin, and corticosteroids. Leinders was also charged of administering blood transfusions and covering up anti-doping violations. Rasmussen admitted that Leinders provided assistance to him with blood transfusions during the 2004 and 2005 Tours de France and the 2007 Giro d’Italia. The Danish rider also said false medical certificates were written by Leinders so that he can use cortisone and also claimed that Leinders helped him dope with insulin. Leipheimer revealed the doctor assisted him dope with EPO at the 2002 and 2003 Tours de France.

The former Team Sky doctor, who worked with the Rabobank team until 2010 and as a freelance for Team Sky in 2011 and 2012, was banned for life by the United States Anti-Doping Agency for multiple doping violations.

Leipheimer and Rasmussen received reduced bans for their assistance with the inquiring agencies.

Some of the big names on the list are Trevor Graham and Guido Nigrelli, owner of the pharmacy at the centre of the Mantova investigation. Carlo Santuccione, who “assisted” Danilo Di Luca and Riccardo Riccò also finds a mention on the list.

WADA President, Sir Craig Reedie, said the anti-doping agency is increasingly of the belief that athletes do not dope alone, and that often there is a member of their entourage encouraging them to cheat. Sir Reedie also remarked that this new ‘Prohibited Association’ rule sends a clear message to athletes not to associate with individuals that have breached anti-doping rules as they could encourage them to cheat the system and to rob their fellow athletes of their right to clean sport.

Reedie added WADA, by publishing this list, is helping athletes know which individuals to evade if they are to avoid violating the rules themselves. The WADA President also said this list will also assist ADOs (Anti-doping Organizations) as it is their responsibility to advise their athletes of the support personnel that have ‘disqualifying status’ and the consequences of such association.

Athletes who are found working with the listed people would violate WADA’s Prohibited Association article 2.10 and face suspension.

pdf_iconDownload in PDF: Ferrari And Former Sky Doctor Named In WADA’s Banned List

Tuesday 15, Sep 2015

Doping Test Could Knock Out Floyd Mayweather

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Floyd Joy Mayweather, Jr., who announced his retirement recently, has been accused of a doping violation four months ago.

According to media reports, Mayweather allegedly received an intravenous injection of vitamins and saline that was banned under the guidelines of the World Anti-Doping Agency on the eve of his bout with Manny Pacquiao inLas Vegason 2 May. Mayweather defeated Pacquiao on a unanimous decision to improve his perfect record to 48-0 and retired at 49-0.

Reports emerging in the media revealed that collection agents of the United States Anti-Doping Agency visited the house of Mayweather in Las Vegasthe night before his 2 May fight. This was to perform an unannounced drug test and it was discovered by the USADA collection agents that Floyd Joy Mayweather, Jr. had been given an IV for rehydration purposes. Media reports added the substances in the IV were not banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency but they were given intravenously that was not permitted. Mayweather was not given a retroactive therapeutic use exemption (TUE) by the United States Anti-Doping Agency until 19 days later.

In a statement, Mayweather refuted the allegations and said he did not commit any doping violations. Considered to be the best boxer of his generation and amongst the greatest fighters of all time, Mayweather said he was fully supported by the United States Anti-Doping Agency. The boxer said he did not commit any violations of theNevada or USADA drug testing guidelines. Mayweather went on to add that it was he who six years ago insisted on elevating the level of drug testing for all my fights and as a result there is more drug testing and awareness of its importance in the sport of boxing today than ever before.

In a statement, USADA defended the boxer and said we believe it is important to immediately correct the record regarding the false suggestion that Floyd Mayweather violated the rules by receiving an IV infusion of saline and vitamins. The USADA statement also reads that Mayweather as was already publicly reported in May of this year by the Nevada State Athletic Commission (NSAC) applied for and was granted a therapeutic use exemption by USADA for an IV infusion of saline and vitamins that was administered prior to his 2 May fight. It was further added by USADA that the use of IV by Mayweather was not prohibited under the NSAC rules at that time and would not be a violation of the NSAC rules as of now. The United States Anti-Doping Agency added both the NSAC and Team Pacquiao were notified about the TUE after it was granted even though the practice is not prohibited under NSAC rules.

USADA added it has conducted anti-doping programs over the past six years for more than 45 fights in the sport of professional boxing. It added as a result every athlete who has participated in one of our programs has voluntarily agreed to abide by the rules of the Wada Code and willingly subjected themselves to substantially more stringent testing protocols than they otherwise would have been subject to.

pdf_iconDownload in PDF: Doping Test Could Knock Out Floyd Mayweather

Sunday 13, Sep 2015

Medical Records Of Lance Armstrong Sought By Federal Government

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The U.S. federal government wants medical records of Lance Armstrong from his cancer treatments to prove the great lengths Armstrong was willing to go to hide his use of drugs from the public and his sponsors.

Lance Armstrong’s former teammate Frankie Andreu and his wife, Betsy, have sworn for years that they were in the hospital room of Armstrong in 1996 when he admitted to the use of performance enhancing drugs (testosterone, EPO, and human growth hormone). Armstrong vehemently denied the story of Frankie Andreu and his wife for years.

Armstrong has relied on a sworn affidavit by one of his doctors, Craig Nichols, who said he had monitored the blood levels of Lance Armstrong from 1997-2001 and found nothing irregular. Nichols also said he did not notice any sign of the blood booster EPO. However, Armstrong admitted under oath in July that he had used the blood-boosting drug during that period. Nichols is a former Livestrong board member.

The government said in documents filed in Washington that the efforts of the disgraced cyclist to blunt the allegations of Andreus were critical to hiding the truth of his doping from, among others, the United States Postal Service.

Presently, Lance Armstrong is fighting release of his medical records from the Indiana University School of Medicine as part of a whistleblower lawsuit in which the federal government seeks to recover more than $30 million in sponsorship that was paid by the U.S. Postal Service to Armstrong and his teams. The former cyclist may be asked to pay as much as $100 million in the case that the US federal government joined only two years back after the 2010 filing of the Qui Tam suit by former Armstrong teammate Floyd Landis.

The US federal government has also subpoenaed records of a $1.5 million donation to the IU medical school from Livestrong charity of Armstrong that came two days after the first testimony of Andreus about the alleged hospital room conversation.

In another development, the federal government is seeking information from Nike that shows the sportswear company would not have sponsored him if it knew he was using performance enhancing drugs. It is claimed by the government that the USPS did not derived any benefit when Armstrong won six Tour de France titles while being associated with the team. On the other hand, Armstrong and his legal team claims the USPS profited greatly from the publicity it received from the cyclist, who wore the USPS logo while gaining worldwide fame in the Tour de France.

Armstrong’s attorneys wrote the government argues that, even though the USPS sponsorship of the cycling team ended in 2004, it was damaged in 2013 when Armstrong admitted to using performance enhancing drugs. It was further added that documents and testimony from Nike regarding the benefits it received during its sponsorship of the cycling team and Armstrong, and the damage (or lack thereof) it suffered when Lance Armstrong admitted to doping in 2013, is relevant to the government’s theory of damage.

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Friday 11, Sep 2015

Nike Fights Subpoena In US Federal Lawsuit

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The legal fight between the US federal government and disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong, who won seven consecutive Tour de France titles before being stripped of all and banned for life, is now threatening to drag Nike, the sportswear company, into the fray.

The sportswear company has been served subpoenas by both Armstrong and the government to grill Nike under oath as a witness to find out more about the previous sponsorship of Armstrong with the company. In reply, Nike has decided to fight back at both and has requested a federal judge in Oregon for help protecting its information.

Nike attorney Mary VanderWeele wrote in a declaration to the court that disclosure of this information could harm Nike’s industry reputation and its relationship with athletes, who expect Nike to maintain the private financial, performance, and related information regarding their relationships with Nike in confidence. Attorneys for Nike stated in a court document filed Armstrong and the Government have dragged non-party Nike at the eleventh hour into litigation that has been going on for years and for which Nike can provide essentially no relevant information.

A court document submitted by Robert Weaver, an attorney for Nike, said Nike is in the business of selling athletic apparel and merchandise, and relies on sponsorship of athletes and product placement as part of its business model. The document also reads USPS, on the other hand, is in the business of postal delivery services and sponsorship of an athletic team is not part of its core business model. It was further added that any comparison between USPS’s and Nike’s experience related to sponsorship of Armstrong or the USPS is simply not relevant to any claim or defense raised by the parties in the litigation. The Nike attorney added a response to Armstrong’s subpoena would contain organizational, funding, strategic, and other operating information regarding the proprietary business model Nike uses in its sponsorship efforts and also said this information is a trade secret.

The subpoenas are part of the $100 million civil fraud suit of the federal government against Lance Armstrong on behalf of the U.S. Postal Service that sponsored Armstrong’s cycling team from 1998 to 2004.

In 2012, Nike and all of Armstrong’s other major sponsors fired him after a massive file of evidence was released by the United States Anti-Doping Agency that showed Lance Armstrong doped throughout his cycling career.

Lance Armstrong wants to bring Nike into the fray so that he could improve his defense that the government’s lawsuit against him is baseless as the U.S. Postal Service suffered no damages and instead profited to a great extent from the publicity generated by his success at the time. The federal government, on the other hand, argues that the cycling team of Armstrong violated its sponsorship contract by doping and concealed those violations to continue receiving more than $30 million in payments. These payments would not have been received if the U.S. federal government had known that doping was prevalent in the U.S. Postal Service cycling team.

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