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Archive for  April 2016

Saturday 30, Apr 2016

Dee Gordon Suspended 80 Games For Doping

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Dee Gordon, the reigning National League batting champion, has been suspended for 80 games early Friday after he tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs. Major League Baseball announced the suspension that Gordon had tested positive for Exogenous Testosterone and Clostebol.

MLB made the announcement after the Marlins’ victory in Los Angeles. The suspension was the second in second in eight days for a player coming off the best season of his career. Chris Colabello, an undrafted former independent leaguer who hit .321 for the Toronto Blue Jays last season, was also handed suspension for 80 games. Colabello was informed by MLB that he had tested positive for Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone but was not suspended until April 22 after his appeal was denied.

Gordon is hitting .266 and was tied for the team lead in runs scored, with 13, and led the Marlins in steals, with six despite a low .289 on-base percentage. Gordon hit .333 — 61 points above his career average as a Dodger — last season. He led the league in stolen bases and hits while winning a Gold Glove. Gordon rewarded him with a five-year, $50 million contract in January though he was to make only $3 million this season. Gordon issued a statement through the Players’ Association where denied using banned drugs on purpose. The statement said he did not so knowingly and he has informed that test results showed he ingested something that contained prohibited substances.

In the statement, Gordon added the hardest part about this is feeling that he has let down his teammates, the organization, and the fans. The American professional baseball second baseman for the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball added he should have been careful to avoid products that could contain something banned by MLB and the 20-plus tests that he had taken and passed throughout his career prove this. Gordon, who previously played for the Los Angeles Dodgers, said he made a mistake and will accept the consequences.

Gordon was praised by Marlins’ owner, Jeffrey Loria when Gordon’s contract was announced in January. In a statement then, Loria said it is truly incredible and historic what he did in his first season with our ball club. Miami’s team president, David Samson, said the Marlins would welcome Gordon back and added the Marlins completely support the Major League Baseball drug prevention program in every way. Samson remarked the Marlins were informed on Thursday of the positive test and added it is a huge disappointment and a huge loss for our team as we love Dee Gordon, but we do not like what he did.

Marlins Manager Don Mattingly remarked he was shocked and surprised at the positive test of Gordon and said the bad news deflated a team that should have been celebrating its sweep. Mattingly remarked you as a team would expect our guys to be in there all excited and then we get this news and that’s not quite the feeling. The Marlins Manager said we will support Dee and said Gordon is like one of his kids and we are going to move forward.

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Thursday 28, Apr 2016

Anti-Doping Reforms Announced By Russia In Bid To Avoid Olympics Ban

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Russia has announced reforms in hopes that they will repair the credibility of its anti-doping body and allow its athletics team to compete at the Rio Olympics.

Last November, Russia was suspended by the International Association of Athletics Federation after the country was accused of “state-sponsored” doping in a report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The Russian ministry of sport announced on Wednesday that all Russian track and field athletes who intend to compete at the Rio Olympics in August will now undergo a minimum of three independent, externally administered anti-doping controls before the Olympics. The Russian sports ministry said these anti-doping controls will be carried out by the world governing body of athletics and be in addition to existing anti-doping procedures.

The ministry of sport also remarked two independent international experts who will be nominated by the World Anti-Doping Agency will be based full-time in Moscow from the end of April. These experts will have complete and free” access for as long as necessary to ensure the Russian anti-doping system is free of undue interference and is fully independent. Russia’s minister of sport, Vitaly Mutko, remarked we believe that sport must be clean and fair at all levels, from grassroots through to elite and added we are 100% supportive of WADA’s efforts, alongside the International Olympic Committee and the IAAF and other organizations, to stamp out cheating. Mutko also commented that the dreams of clean athletes must not be allowed to be destroyed because of other people’s mistakes and also said this is an important step in our journey.

Recently, the head of European Athletics says after meeting Russian officials that the Russian team could still compete at the European Championships if reinstated by the IAAF. European Athletics President Svein Arne Hansen, who is on the IAAF Council that should decide the status of Russia on June 17 in Vienna, said there is still time enough for the Russian team to enter. The IAAF will hear reports from its taskforce into the anti-doping progress made by Russia on June 17.A five-strong IAAF taskforce, headed by former World Anti-Doping Agency director Rune Andersen, has been monitoring Russia’s anti-doping progress. The IAAF said in a statement the taskforce is having regular meetings and conference calls with the ROC (Russian Olympic Committee), the ICC (the Interim Coordination Committee that is coordinating Russia’s co-operation with the taskforce) and the RusAf (the Russian Athletics Federation) and will deliver their next report to the IAAF Council when they meet in June.

In another development, the World Anti-Doping Agency disclosed on April 27 that track and field was the sport with the worst doping record in 2014 and Russia had more doping violations than any other country that year. WADA said Russian athletes racked up a total of 148 violations, followed by Italy with 123, India with 96, and Belgium and France with 91 violations each. Track and field led the number of doping violations by sport with 248, followed by bodybuilding with 225, cycling with 168, weightlifting with 143, and powerlifting with 116.

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Tuesday 26, Apr 2016

Rafael Nadal Sues French Official For Doping Allegation

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Spanish tennis star Rafael Nadal has filed lawsuit on Monday against a former French minister who accused him of doping. Nadal reiterated he has never taken performance enhancing drugs and fed up of accusations made without any evidence.

Nadal, who is widely regarded as the greatest clay-court player in history, said the lawsuit was filed as he needs to defend his integrity and image as an athlete. Nadal remarked a defamation suit was filed in Paris by his lawyers against Roselyne Bachelot, France’s former minister for health and sport, because of her “offensive remarks” last month on French television.

Bachelot said on the TV show Le Grand 8 that the seven-month injury hiatus of Nadal in 2012 was “probably due to a positive doping test.” The ex-minister made the comments in the wake of the failed doping test of Russian tennis player Maria Sharapova. The remarks of Bachelot upset Nadal and outraged Spaniards, including many fellow athletes who were quick to speak up in defense of Nadal. Bachelot was also loudly criticized by the Spanish Olympic Committee and members of the Spanish government.

Toni Nadal, Nadal’s coach and uncle, called Bachelot “an imbecile,” according to Spanish news media. Toni Nadal said his nephew Rafa has passed multiple drug tests every year and is committed to competing in a clean sport. Toni added Rafa’s lawyer is working to take all possible measures and with maximum force and also remarked in this world, instead of proving the guilt of a person, you have to prove your innocence. The coach of Rafael said Rafa goes through many doping controls every year even though he has done nothing and will do nothing wrong.

Alejandro Blanco, the president of Spain’s Olympic committee, remarked he would like Rafael Nadal to be the country’s flag bearer at the Rio de Janeiro Games, in part to make a statement after accusations by Bachelot. Nadal was previously selected as the flag bearer of Spain for the 2012 London Olympics but missed the Games because of an injury.

One of Spain’s biggest sports idols, Nadal is a 14-time Grand Slam champion and the gold medalist at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing.

In a statement, Rafael Nadal said he intends not only to defend his integrity through this case and his image as an athlete but also the values he has defended his entire career. Nadal added he also wishes to avoid any public figure from making insulting or false allegations against an athlete using the media, without any evidence or foundation and to go unpunished. Nadal, currently ranked world No. 5, also commented that any compensation awarded by the judge if he wins the case will be paid to a non-governmental organization or foundation in France. Nadal also said he asks for total respect regarding the legal procedure just started and would like to express my complete trust in the French justice system that will be judging the legal case and commented he will not be making any further statement about the case.

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Sunday 24, Apr 2016

Team Sky Rider Back Under The Spotlight Again

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Team Sky rider Sergio Henao has been withdrawn by the team for the second time in his professional cycling career after concerns were raised by the Cycling Anti-Doping Foundation (CADF).

On Wednesday, Team Sky announced the news on its website. The team remarked Sergio has this week been contacted by the CADF with a request for more information with regards to readings on his Athlete Blood Passport from August 2011 to June 2015 and added these include the same readings which prompted us to undertake further research in 2014. Team Sky also said in the statement that we continue to support Sergio and remain confident in the independent scientific research which was undertaken. The statement further reads that we will be helping Sergio make his case robustly over the coming period and the rider will also withdraw from racing until the issue is resolved given this contact from the CADF and the very obvious distraction to him. Team Sky also said there is no obligation on us to do this but it is team policy if and when a formal process such as this begins.

Henao’s team remarked we continue to support Sergio and remain confident in the independent scientific research which was undertaken. Team Sky added it is our hope that this can be looked at and resolved quickly by all the relevant authorities so Sergio can start racing again soon.

This was after concerns regarding his biological passport arose. The biological passport collects data on the use of legal and illegal drugs and the readings of Henao demonstrated some discrepancy for the second time in his career.

The Colombian, who was previously withdrawn in 2014, said he works hard and has made a lot of sacrifices for where he is today. Henao made a return to race at the Tour de Suisse after he was withdrawn for the first time following the findings of scientific experts at the conclusion of the independent research program. The 10-week program gave Team Sky the highest level of confidence in Sergio’s previous data and profiles. At that time, Team Sky remarked the study provided valuable new insights into the physiology of ‘altitude natives’ such as Colombian climbers.

Team Principal Sir Dave Brailsford had then remarked that we have (by taking this structured, scientific approach) gained a better understanding of his readings and specific physiology and valuable insights into the effects of altitude. Brailsford had also commented that we are very pleased to welcome Sergio back to racing and are looking forward to having him at the Tour de Suisse and said our approach has been fair to both the rider and the team, and whilst it was our decision to take him out of racing, it is also ours that he returns with our full backing.

The research program was conducted by a team from the University of Sheffield with the cooperation of the Colombian anti-doping authorities started in Europe, continued for 6-weeks at altitude in Colombia, and finished with final base-level tests in Nice.

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Friday 22, Apr 2016

Biological Passport Case Opened By UCI Against Henao

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A biological passport case has been opened by the Cycling Anti Doping Foundation (CADF), the anti-doping arm of the UCI, against Team Sky rider Sergio Henao.

The Colombian has 20 days to respond to the request of CADF for more explanations and information relating to his blood profile from a period from August 2011 to June 2015. Henao has been temporarily withdrawn from racing by Team Sky for the second time in his career as a result of opening of the case.

Team Sky Principal Dave Brailsford remarked the physiology of ‘altitude natives’ is a complex area. Brailsford added the science is limited and in recent years we have proactively sought to understand it better by undertaking detailed scientific research – both for Sergio and for the benefit of clean sport more widely.

The rider posted a reaction on the Team Sky website and said he has been beyond disappointed. Henao added he had worked incredibly hard to get back to racing fitness after shattering his knee last year – but he knows who he is, how hard he have worked and the sacrifices he have made to be where he is today. The Team Sky said he is calm and confident that this will be resolved soon so he can get back to racing as soon as possible.

The UCI commented this stage is confidential as per the applicable regulations, when the independent experts in charge of reviewing biological passport profiles require further information from the athlete. The UCI and CADF however confirm given that this is already in the public domain that Sergio Henao has been asked to provide explanations for his ABP values and added his explanations will be sent back to the same experts for review and assessment as per WADA’s ABP process and also commented that the UCI and CADF cannot comment further in the meantime.

In March 2014, Henao was first withdrawn from racing and was subsequently placed on a Team Sky ‘altitude research program’ of testing. The rider was cleared to race by his team in June 2014 after he was cleared of any wrongdoing by an internal investigation and urine and blood tests. Team Sky, while clearing Henao, had confirmed that their internal testing program was conducted by a team from the University of Sheffield with the cooperation of the Colombian anti-doping authorities. Team Sky Principal Dave Brailsford then said we were left with three choices, one was let him carry on and then see whether in seven months’ time he gets a letter from the UCI or not, we could stop him totally and say we are not happy with the situation but because it is new information that would be very harsh and so we decided on a third option where we try and find a new approach but it is a very difficult situation.

The 2014 testing program started in Europe, continued for six-weeks at altitude in Colombia, and finished with final base-level tests in Nice. The program findings were given to the CADF, the world governing body of cycling, and the World Anti-Doping Agency.

pdf_iconDownload in PDF: Biological Passport Case Opened By UCI Against Henao

Wednesday 20, Apr 2016

Doping Law Passed By Kenya Parliament

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Kenya, the powerhouse of athletics, is all set to avoid sanctions by the World Anti-Doping Agency after its parliament finally passed a law that criminalized doping.

The anti-doping law protects the health of athletes and puts coordinated and effective mechanisms for detecting, deterring, and preventing the use of prohibited substances or prohibited material in competitive or recreational sport.

Kenyan sports minister Hassan Wario said President Kenyatta was expected to sign off on the doping legislation by the end of this week. It was announced by Kenyan sports minister that the anti-doping bill had been approved by lawmakers and now only needs to be signed by the president to be adopted as law. Previously, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta has said he will sign the anti-doping legislation and he would personally drive the bull through parliament with the sports reputation of the country on the line.

It was confirmed on Tuesday by Presidential spokesman Manoah Esipisu that the president would approve the law. Once the assent has been provided for the bill by the President, the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya would be created as a corporate body for promoting sports that are free from prohibited substances or methods and intended for artificially improving performance and developing a national strategy to address doping in sport. The Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya will then work independently to ensure implementation of various guidelines and international standards in matters related to anti-doping.

Parliamentarians of Kenya previously failed to comply with the April 5 deadline to pass the Anti-doping bill. Kenya thereafter applied for an extension that was granted until May 2. Passing the anti-doping law is one of the things Kenya requires to have in place by a final deadline of May 2. Failure to done it would have cost the African country being declared as non-compliant with WADA’s global code. The new law calls for prison sentences in some cases where athlete or others are found guilty of providing or using performance enhancing drugs.

Kenya was also asked by the World Anti-Doping Agency to strengthen its overall anti-doping program after a surge in positive tests was noticed. The country was also asked to establish and properly fund a national anti-doping agency. In the past, the East African country that is home to the top distance runners of the world found troubles in getting the anti-doping bill passed.

Kenyan athletics has been the victim of many doping cases, allegations of cover-ups and extortion by top track federation officials. Since London Olympics, forty Kenyans have been banned for doping.

Few days back, the compliance committee of WADA said it would recommend to the agency’s board to declare Kenya non-compliant if the improvements were not made by May 2.

IAAF President Sebastian Coe recently remarked the world governing body of athletics would be ready to ban Kenyan athletes from international competitions if the East African country consistently failed to comply with WADA regulations. A ban could have likely put athletes of Kenya, including prominent stars like 800-meter Olympic champion David Rudisha, out of the Games in Rio de Janeiro in August.

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Monday 18, Apr 2016

Boris Becker Slams Andy Murray Over His Tennis Doping Remarks

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Tennis legend Boris Becker has slammed Scottish professional tennis player Andy Murray after he said he has held doping suspicions over some opponents he has faced in the past.

Becker labeled allegations by Murray as “totally out of order”. The German former world No. 1 professional tennis player insisted all the top players are clean. Becker, the coach of current world number one Novak Djokovic, said he rejected Murray’s comment outright and added he was not amused by them. The German tennis legend said we have random drug testing and unless it is proven, they are 100 per cent innocent and added it is totally out of order to throw in a curve ball and assume something because somebody has won a Grand Slam or is fitter.

Becker also remarked Andy Murray is one of the fittest players on the tour — he often outlasts other players and nobody is questioning his ethics. The German great added tennis is clean and remarked top male tennis stars like Andy Murray, Rafael Nadal, and Stan Wawrinka are clean. The six-time major singles champion from Germany added there was always a suspicion of Rafa and he finds that so unbelievably disrespectful about one of the greatest players of all time. Nadal, the clay-court king, recently ended a four-year title drought after beating Frenchman Gael Monfils 7-5, 5-7, 6-0 to claim his ninth Monte Carlo Masters trophy.

The world No.2, who is one of the most vocal critics of drug cheats in tennis, also urged tennis authorities to put more money into the war on doping. Murray remarked he had played against players and thought they would not go away and don’t seem to be getting tired and he is suspicious. The two-time Grand Slam winner also remarked it is harder to tell in our sport as people can make big improvements to a stroke or start serving better because they have made technical changes. Murray, the Olympic champion and Davis Cup champion, also commented you would look at that if it is purely physical and you’re watching someone playing six-hour matches over and over and showing no signs of being tired.

The Scottish professional tennis player also remarked the drug ban on Maria Sharapova shows tennis is not covering up for its big stars. Sharapova received a provisional suspension after she tested positive for Meldonium at the Australian Open and Murray welcomed the decision to make the news public.

In November, tennis veterans Roger Federer and Murray warned tennis authorities that they should spend more to prevent a doping scandal in the sport. At that time, Murray remarked the best way for preventing a doping scandal like athletics is to more resources to anti-doping measures in order to stop cheats. Murray remarked it is up to the governing bodies just how much they want to tackle it because with the amount of money and profit sport actually makes, there needs to be enough spent on anti-doping. The Scottish player added the prize money we have in tennis is extremely high and we need to look at how much we are spending on this area and said tennis should be doing more on doping as it can.

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Saturday 16, Apr 2016

Paolini Receives Doping Ban Of 18 Months

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Italian road bicycle racer Luca Paolini has received a doping ban of 18 months from the world governing body of cycling. The cyclist tested positive for cocaine during last year’s Tour de France.

The 39-year-old was facing the possibility of facing a ban of two years when his hearing took place in March. Paolini’s case was one of the first cases heard by the UCI’s Anti-Doping Tribunal. Cocaine is classified as a banned substance in competition under the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) code. However, athletes are not banned if they test positive for the social drug out of competition.

Paolini’s teammate Alexander Kristoff had previously revealed the cyclist’s use of sleeping tablets. Kristoff remarked he knew Paolini was struggling to sleep at night and to wake up in the day. Paolini had himself already admitted to using the drug and also said he has an addiction to sleeping tablets, calling himself a slave to the pills. Paolini admitted he took cocaine in June at a personal training camp and also remarked it happened at a low point in his life after he spent years of addiction to the sleeping medicine Minias (Benzodiazepine). The rider has undergone treatment for his addiction to the sleeping medication since he was suspended from racing following his A-sample test.

The suspension of Paolini will end 18 months from the date of the ‘adverse analytical finding’ and he can make a return to the Peloton as he will be free to race from January 6 next year, 11 days before his 40th birthday.

The rider however has the right to appeal the decision. Meanwhile, his former team, Katusha, has confirmed that it will not take Paolini back after nullifying his contract last year. A Katusha spokesperson said we are happy that there’s now been a decision but for us it doesn’t change anything for the team because we terminated his contract last year. The spokesman added he admitted at a certain point to us that he took cocaine and that is really against the team rules and added Paolini still has the right to go to appeal but it doesn’t change things for us as we have strict anti-doping policy.

A statement on the UCI’s website said the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) announces that the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal has rendered its decision in the case involving Luca Paolini. The statement further reads that the Anti-Doping Tribunal found the rider guilty of a non-intentional anti-doping rule violation (presence of a cocaine metabolite – Benzoylecgonine) and imposed an 18-month period of ineligibility on the rider. In accordance with the Procedural Rules of the Anti-Doping Tribunal, the decision will shortly be published on the UCI website.

Born on 17 January 1977, Luca Paolini has been professionally riding since 2000. Paolini started his sports career by joining Mapei–Quick-Step (2000–2002) and then its successor team Quick-Step–Innergetic (2003–2005) where he attained many wins, including first places at Gran Premio di Lugano, Giro del Piemonte and Gran Premio Bruno Beghelli. Paolini also won stages at Tour of Britain and Tour de Wallonie.

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Thursday 14, Apr 2016

WADA Announces Meldonium Amnesty

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The World Anti-Doping Agency has given a potential lifeline to athletes who have tested positive for the recently-banned drug Meldonium. The anti-doping agency made the decision after admitting it is not sure how long it takes the drug to leave the body.

Presently, studies are being conducted into the renal elimination of Meldonium and new guidelines have been issued by WADA that could see some athletes cleared.

The World Anti-Doping Agency remarked that Meldonium could be detectable for several months after it had last been ingested based on the preliminary results of those studies. It remarked there is currently a lack of clear scientific information on excretion times in the case of Meldonium. WADA also said athletes could be cleared of blame if the amount of Meldonium detected was less than one microgram per milliliter and while the same applies if the sample was taken before March 1 and the concentration was between one and 15 micrograms.

The substance was added to the banned list at the start of this year and more than 100 sportsmen and women so far have failed tests for it. According to reports, doping samples from 158 athletes from 15 countries have proved positive for Meldonium and at least 31 Russian athletes are suspected of using the banned substance.

Head of the Russian Speed-Skater Union Alexei Kravtsov announced Russian speed skaters Pavel Kulizhnikov and Ekaterina Konstantinova and short-track speed skater Semion Elistratov may be amnestied by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Kravtsov remarked the concentration of Meldonium in the doping samples of the skaters was significantly less than the acceptable amount of one microgram that the World Anti-Doping Agency made public on April 13. Benefits of the amnesty could also be reaped by four-time swimming world champion Yulia Yefimova and volleyball player Alexander Markin. The amount of Meldonium in their doping samples is also less than the threshold level.

Tennis star Maria Sharapova was the highest-profile athlete to have tested positive for Meldonium. However, it is not clear whether this new guidance could possibly save her and help her case given she admitted not knowing Meldonium had become a banned substance. The Russian professional tennis player is presently serving a provisional suspension after she tested positive at the Australian Open in January. Among other athletes, Swedish runner Abeba Aregawi, Russian swimmer Yuliya Efimova, and Russian Olympic speed-skating champion Semion Elistratov are some of the other athletes to have failed tests.

In a statement, the Russian Sports Ministry gave its reaction and said the Russian Sports Ministry supports and welcomes the decision made by WADA because it has showed a willingness to understand the situation, rather than stick to the rulebook. The statement further reads they were ready to study how long it would take for Meldonium to be eliminated from the body of an athlete and added the World Anti-Doping Agency has sent recommendations to all the anti-doping organizations, which will allow them to make fair decisions based on the actual guilt of an athlete. The Russian Sports Ministry statement also said WADA has demonstrated impartiality and being objective in the fight against doping in doing so.

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Tuesday 12, Apr 2016

Growth Hormones Were Given To Victorian Special Operations Group Members

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The Melbourne Magistrates’ Court has heard that an associate of key figures in the Essendon doping scandal provided members of Victoria Police’s elite Special Operations Group with growth hormones.

The Court heard that a sergeant and his colleague from the Special Operations Group were patients of Robin James Taylor, who was charged with possessing anabolic steroids and Testosterone after his Melbourne Sport Medicine and Anti-Aging Clinic was raided in October 2013, along with a member of the Hells Angels bikies club. Taylor once used to work at Shane Charter’s doctor ageless clinic. Shane provided growth hormones and peptides to Essendon Sports scientist Stephen Dank.

The officer, who cannot be named, told the Melbourne Magistrates’ Court Taylor provided him with growth hormones SARMS 22 and GHRP 6 that help with muscle growth. The unnamed official admitted before the Court that he used the drugs to find relief from a shoulder injury. The officer said his blood test results were discussed by the controversial clinic owner and he was thereafter provided with the medication.

The officer also remarked Taylor’s co-accused doctor Hoong Pan Sze-Tho was in the room but did not speak during the consultation. The SOG member said Taylor left the room and came back with medication and added that we were shown some medication and then given some Intel on how to use that medication and the name on the packets were SARMS 22 and GHRP 6.

Taylor’s wife Georgina Matta has also been charged along with a doctor, Hoong Pan Sze-Tho, and the clinic’s receptionist, Amy Lee Gorgievski. Taylor faces more than 70 charges including trafficking other anabolic androgenic steroids, importing prohibited goods, and obtaining property by deception by purporting to be a licensed medical practitioner. Dr Sze-Tho faces 242 charges that include trafficking anabolic steroids and prescribing testosterone for other than medical treatment while Ms Matta is charged with 55 similar offences. The offences are alleged to have occurred between January 2012, and October 2013.

An audit by the Department of Health at a Chemist Warehouse pharmacist near Taylor’s Ascot Vale clinic found Dr Sze-Tho was ordering very huge amounts of testosterone that Taylor or his wife would pick up from the clinic. It was disclosed by Chris Falke, Manager of Compliance at Department of Human Services that some of the prescriptions were for 90 injections and that is an extraordinary quantity. Falke added he would say prescribing 90 injections is very difficult to justify in any circumstances.

Doping in sports is not new but rare in Australian sports. During 2013, Australia recorded 35 drugs offences, and most of these cases were from bodybuilding and Rugby (including both Union and League). Australia’s positive drug tests according to figures from the World Anti-Doping Agency were bodybuilding (seven), bowling (one), boxing (one), cycling (two), netball (one), powerlifting (four), aquatics (two cases), athletics (three), AFL (three), motorsports (one), baseball (one), rugby (six), triathlon (one), weightlifting (one) and wrestling (one). Russia had 225 drugs cases in 2013 and Turkey had a total of 188 drugs cases.

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