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Thursday 07, Jan 2016

  Boogerd Given Two-Year Suspension For Doping

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The world governing body of cycling, the UCI, has handed a suspension of two years to former rider and directeur sportif Michael Boogerd.

In a press release issued by the UCI, it confirmed that the suspension of Boogerd would run until December 21, 2017. The statement on the UCI’s website reads the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) announces that Michael Boogerd has been sanctioned with a two years’ ineligibility for the anti-doping rule violations he committed during his cycling career. It was further added that the ban is effective until 21 December 2017. The UCI also mentioned that the case has been resolved via an acceptance of consequences as provided for by the World Anti-Doping Code and the UCI Anti-Doping Rules and the UCI will not comment any further.

In a statement, Boogerd said he is bearing the responsibility because of his voluntary confession on March 6, 2013 and would accept the consequences of decisions that he had taken in the past. Boogerd added he did not receive a reduced ban as he was always alone and ready to tell his own story and not about other riders of coaches. In a statement, the Roompot team confirmed that Boogerd would not fight the suspension and added we wish Michael and his family a lot of strength in this difficult time and hope in the future to re-use his knowledge of and love for cycling.

Boogerd would not be able to continue in his role as a directur sportif for the Roompot – Oranje Peloton Pro Continental team. In addition to this, the results of Boogerd from 2005 to 2007 will be scratched from his palmares that included a victory at the Dutch national championships in 2006.

In an interview in 2013, the former Rabobank rider confessed to having used the banned blood booster EPO, cortisone, and blood transfusions. Boogerd, who was an official with the Dutch second-tier team Roompot Oranje last season, said he used banned substances at the end of his career from 1997 to 2007.

Nicknamed the “Boogie-man”, Boogerd was appointed team manager of Team Roompot, a UCI Professional Continental cycling team launching in 2015. Boogerd was a specialist in the one-day classics who won the Amstel Gold race in 1999 and edged Lance Armstrong into second place, and had two stage wins in the Tour de France. In 1993, he turned professional with the WordPerfect–Colnago–Decca team that would later become Racobank.

The Dutch former professional road bicycle racer was one of the leaders of a generation of Dutch cyclists in the late 1990s and early 2000s along with teammate Erik Dekker. The specialties of Boogerd were hilly classics such as La Flèche Wallonne, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, and the Amstel Gold Race in the Ardennes week and the Lombardian races in the Fall, and mountain-stages. Boogerd has been Dutch Champion three times, in 1997, 1998 and in 2006.Boogerd finished 5th overall in the General classification in the 1998 Tour de France that was his highest finish ever in the Tour.

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Wednesday 06, May 2015

  French TV Micro-Dosing Doping Experiment Slammed By WADA

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French TV Micro-Dosing Doping Experiment Slammed By WADA

French television channel Stade 2 has been slammed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for its experiment into micro-dosing and avoiding detection from the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this experiment, the organization described participants as “human guinea pigs.”

WADA claimed that French reports that a method called ‘micro-doping’ can beat anti-doping screenings are false. The results of this report were not scientifically proven, says WADA. It added it is first important in commenting on any study that the findings are properly peer reviewed and published.

Eight amateur athletes were recruited by Stade 2 and small doses of Erythropoietin (EPO) after undergoing a VO2 max test, which is a time trial on a static bike and 3km run. The recruited athletes were then tested again after the month of doping. It was found that average improvement in VO2 max among the athletes was at 6.1 per cent. The report also tried to demonstrate that none of the athletes would have been detected by the Athlete Biological Passport. It was also demonstrated by the program that the athletes would not have tripped any alarms in the bio-passport system thus implying that this doping method could be used by top professionals to surreptitiously enhance performance.

This study was carried out by Pierre Sallet of the Athletes for Transparency organization and demonstrated how the UCI Biological Passport can be circumvented by use of Human Growth Hormone, blood transfusions, EPO, and corticosteroids.

The report is believed to be allegedly conducted with the ‘blessing’ of the World Anti-Doping Agency but WADA has denied this despite making the Athlete Biological Passport software available for the report to use. In a statement, WADA director general David Howman said the study does not accurately follow the Athlete Biological Passport guidelines, and therefore its relevance to the ABP is not entirely clear. Howman added WADA is aware of the television report that aired on France Televisions and added that we would like to clarify that while we did make the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) software available, we certainly did not “bless” or endorse the study, as has been suggested.

The WADA director general also added that the study does not accurately follow the Athlete Biological Passport guidelines, and therefore its relevance to the ABP is not entirely clear. Howman also commented that WADA does not ever recommend athletes take part as ‘human guinea pigs’ in a study in which they would be subjected to taking performance enhancing drugs. The World Anti-Doping Agency also warned athletes not to take part in such studies in which they would be subjected to the use of performance enhancing drugs. A WADA statement reads we welcome and encourage research relevant to the Athlete Biological Passport, and continue to work with experts to advance and enhance the project.

In 2011, a study published in The European Journal of Applied Physiology revealed similar findings to those being reported in the French TV experiment. This study showed a 10 percent increase in total hemoglobin mass among 10 subjects and it also demonstrated that an anti-doping test, which was performed afterward using the biological passport parameters, did not flag any of the samples of the subjects as suspicious.

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Friday 29, Mar 2013

  Danish Olympic Riders Were Doping, Says Rasmussen

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Danish Olympic Riders Were Doping, Says Rasmussen

Three of the riders on the Danish Olympic team were doping when they competed at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, former professional bicycle rider Michael Rasmussen has told anti-doping authorities.

In late January, the Dane who was kicked out of the 2007 Tour de France when he was wearing the race leader’s yellow jersey admitted to doping for 12 years and revealed he has been cooperating with authorities, including the US Anti-Doping Agency, about his drug links and cheating past. The 38-year-old revealed he used EPO, cortisone, insulin, human growth hormone, and blood transfusions from 1998-2010 when he was riding for various teams such as CSC-Tiscali and Rabobank.

According to Politiken newspaper, the former cycle star while being questioned by representatives of the international doping agency, WADA, as well as authorities in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the US explained how doping was part of the preparations of the Danish cycling team for the Olympic Games just over eight years ago. It was remarked that one of the five members of the Danish road cycling team – Frank Høj, Bo Hamburger, Nicki Sørensen, Lars Michaelsen, and Michael Rasmussen – allegedly smuggled the drugs into the Olympic camp. One of the Danes was successful in breaching the otherwise top-notch security at Olympic Games to smuggle a syringe through the control by concealing it in the battery compartment of a media device. The five cyclists shared an apartment in the Olympic Village and spent a lot of time together before the race and discussed the possibility of doping and three of the five riders injected a cortisone product.

The head of the Danish cycling authority and the team leader for the Danish team during Athens 2004, Jesper Worre, was shocked to hear the news and remarked we need to get to the bottom of this because it’s absolutely insane if that actually happened. Worre added we will try to get an overview before commenting and were not present during Rasmussen’s questioning and don’t have insight into the case. He further added that he knew nothing of such occurrences.

The information must be verified before action is taken, Jens Evald, a law professor at Aarhus University and former head of Anti-Doping Danmark, contended. Evald added that everyone that was present at the questioning is part of a confidentiality pact and just because Rasmussen says it is does not mean that it is a truthful statement and said one has to be careful not to conclude anything until the information has been verified.

        Meanwhile, Hamburger and Michaelsen both denied to Ekstra Bladet tabloid that they were doping during the 2004 Olympics. Sørensen, who is still active as a rider for Team Saxo-Tinkoff, also denied doping and said he thinks the accusations about the Olympics in the media are very unpleasant and he just wants to say that they are unfounded. Sørensen added he is willing to speak with Anti-Doping Danmark and DCU about the story.

The head of the Danish athletics association, Danmarks Idræts-Forbund, Niels Nygaard said that it would be very sad if the news was indeed true and remarked it is always sad when Danish athletes are doping, but it is even more of a shame if the Danish cyclist were doping during the Olympic Games.

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Sunday 24, Mar 2013

  WADA May Get Blood Samples From Operation Puerto Evidence

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WADA May Get Blood Samples From Operation Puerto Evidence

There was a way for evidence contained in blood bags seized during the Operation Puerto blood doping trial to be shared with anti-doping authorities without breaking rules aimed at protecting a crime scene once the trial is completed, the lawyer representing the Spanish state said.

Lawyer Lucia Pedrero told the court the complete blood bags shouldn’t be handed over because they are part of a crime, but yes, samples of them could be given and then later the evidence could be destroyed. However, the final decision on this rests solely with judge Julia Santamaria, who has said she will announce her decision after the trial ends on April 2.

        A request for the same has already been made to the court by the World Anti-Doping Agency to release more than 200 blood bags seized by the Spanish police during raids to clinics and other places of doctor Eufemiano Fuentes, the alleged mastermind of a complex doping ring, in 2006. Meanwhile, the anti-doping watchdog of Spain has said it will do so as well when the trial is over.

The Spanish anti-doping authorities and WADA are hopeful that their analysis may lead to the identification of any cheating athletes, and uncover clues which most advanced tests available today could reveal. The World Anti-Doping Agency for years has tried and failed to get access from the Spanish courts to the blood bags found in the possession of Fuentes.

A report in El País has claimed that all 216 blood bags seized during the Operation Puerto have finally been accounted for and belong to 36 different athletes or cyclists.

Fuentes and five other defendants, including his sister and fellow doctor Yolanda Fuentes, are on trial for endangering the health of athletes they performed blood transfusions on with the goal of boosting their performance as doping in Spain was not illegal before 2006. The Operation Puerto blood doping trial involves defendants, including Fuentes and his sister, Manolo Saiz, former ONCE and Liberty Seguros team sports director, Vicente Belda and Ignacio Labarta, both of whom were associated with the former Kelme team. Fuentes and the other defendants did not follow health regulations by carrying out blood transfusions under improper conditions, argued lawyer Lucia Pedrero and said we are not judging specific sport practices but judging if they carried out or incited acts that broke regulations on blood transfusions, thereby putting at risk the public health. He added that it is not necessary to show that harm was done, it is enough to prove the mere creation of the risk. The doctor however denies the charges, saying his procedures were safe.

Meanwhile, the lawyer for the International Cycling Union asked the judge to hand out harsh punishments to set an example. Pablo Jimenez de Parga told judge Julia Santamaria we are before the largest trial against a doping ring in sport, not just in Spain, but possibly in the world and the moment has arrived for the entire world to know Spain’s answer to this kind of behavior.

The trial is set to end on April 2 and the defendants stand to lose their professional licenses and face two years in jail.

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Saturday 09, Mar 2013

  Michael Rasmussen Confesses To Years Of Doping

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Michael Rasmussen Confesses To Years Of Doping

Retired Danish professional bicycle racer, Michael Rasmussen, has admitted to doping for 12 years. The cyclist who competed in road racing and mountain biking revealed he has been cooperating with authorities, including the US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) about his drug links and cheating past.

The cyclist, who won the best climber classification in the 2005 and 2006 Tour de France, told a press conference that he was quitting the sport immediately. Rasmussen remarked that he had provided extensive details to Danish and Dutch authorities, the US Anti-Doping Agency, and the World Anti-Doping Agency, in a series of secret interviews in Amsterdam and Copenhagen.

The 38-year-old Rasmussen was thrown off the 2007 Tour de France for failing to reveal his whereabouts to drug testers before the month-long race. He ticked off a cocktail of drugs he used from 1998-2010 and was riding for various teams such as CSC-Tiscali and Rabobank at the time. Michael Rasmussen admitted to using EPO, cortisone, insulin, human growth hormone, and blood transfusions and said he know he cheated and lied and cheated other riders and accept his punishment. The Danish cyclist said he is no longer carrying a heavy burden like he have done for the last many years and is happy that he don’t have to sit and lie anymore when he is being asked about his past. Surprisingly, Rasmussen never tested positive throughout his cycling career, but served a two-year suspension for the deception over his whereabouts.

He claimed that he was in Mexico when he was in Italy and missed three drug tests and intimated at the time that he lied about his whereabouts because he was cheating on his wife. It was reported that year that Rasmussen had used extensive amounts of EPO and growth hormones and would carry five bags of blood transfusions for emergencies if he was suddenly called upon for a blood test, although the claims were denied by him at that time.

The cyclist was first accused of doping allegations when his former agent, Stefan Matschiner, admitted blood doping his athletes and triathletes up until 2008. Matschiner claimed he supplied blood products to some former clients of Eufemanio Fuentes, the tainted doctor involved in the Operación Puerto doping scandal.

Anti-Doping Denmark said Michael Rasmussen has confessed to having used doping throughout most of his career, including in 2007 when he wore the yellow jersey in the Tour de France and when he was unavailable for out-of-competition testing in the crucial period before the race. The Danish cycling federation confirmed USADA is seeking further testimony to shore up future arbitration hearings against US Postal director Johan Bruyneel and the team doctor Pedro Celaya.

Rasmussen, like disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong, fought his drugs sanction, and took his sponsors, Rabobank, to court to gain performance bonuses. The cyclist now faces a reduced ban of two years, down from a possible eight-year sanction, for his cooperation with authorities and his team sponsors are planning to use him as an example to promote clean sport while he has retired from cycling.

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Sunday 20, Jan 2013

  Armstrong Comments A “Fraud,” Says WADA Head

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Armstrong Comments A “Fraud,” Says WADA Head

WADA President John Fahey said the explanation of Lance Armstrong that he used performance enhancing drugs to create a level-playing field in cycling is a convenient way of justifying the fraud committed by the disgraced cyclist.

Fahey remarked that the assertion of the banned cyclist in the Oprah Winfrey television program that he was not cheating when he started doping through his seven Tour de France wins “gives him no credibility” and added that excuse was not plausible. The WADA President added that Armstrong was wrong and cheated and there was no excuse for what all he did and he didn’t succeed in getting a redemption if he was looking for it. He also added that the cyclist did not appear to be remorseful and said the cyclist didn’t give any names, who all supplied performance enhancing drugs, and what officials were involved.

Lance Armstrong said he started doping in the mid 1990s but did not dope when he finished third in his comeback attempt. In the interview, the cyclist admitted to making use of banned substances, blood-booster EPO, blood doping, blood transfusions, testosterone, cortisone, and human growth hormone and further admitted that he used the banned substances or indulged into blood doping for all his Tour de France wins. He went on to add that it was humanly impossible to win seven straight Tours without doping and refused to implicate anyone else.

The winner of seven consecutive Tour titles further said that he views Italian doctor Michele Ferrari as a good man and smart man and still do when asked by Winfrey to talk about the doctor. Armstrong was almost as reluctant to discuss claims by former teammates Tyler Hamilton and Floyd Landis and said there is no truth to the story that there was a positive test or he paid to the labs or had a secret meeting with the lab director. During the interview with Winfrey, Armstrong said he might not have been caught if not for his comeback in 2009 and he was sure his “fate was sealed” after longtime friend, training partner and trusted lieutenant George Hincapie, was forced to give him up to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency.

Meanwhile, World Anti-Doping Agency director general David Howman said nothing short of a confession under oath – “not talking to a talk-show host,” is what will help the cyclist to request a reconsideration of his lifetime ban from sanctioned events. USADA chief Travis Tygart remarked that the confession of Lance Armstrong was just a start and said the cyclist has finally acknowledged that his cycling career was built on a powerful combination of doping and deceit. Tygart further said Armstrong will testify under oath about the full extent of his doping activities if he is sincere in his desire to correct his past mistakes.

Armstrong’s cancer charity foundation, issued a statement that it was disappointed by the news that Lance misled people during and after his cycling career, including us, and added that the cyclist apologized to its staff and the same was accepted in order to move on and chart a strong, independent course.

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Saturday 19, Jan 2013

  Disgraced Cyclist Admits Being Ringleader Of An Elaborate Doping Scheme

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Disgraced Cyclist Admits Being Ringleader Of An Elaborate Doping Scheme

Lance Armstrong, who was banned for life and stripped of all his titles, has finally admitted that he was the ringleader of an elaborate doping scheme on the U.S. Postal Service team that swept him to the top of the podium at the Tour de France seven times.

In a two-part interview on Thursday night with Oprah Winfrey on her OWN network, the disgraced former cycling champion described him as a “flawed character,” and admitted to using banned substances, blood-booster EPO, blood doping, blood transfusions, testosterone, cortisone, and human growth hormone; the cyclist refused to implicate anyone else and said it was humanly impossible to win seven straight Tours without doping.

The disgraced cyclist mused that his return to professional cycling in 2009 was the reason he was caught and when longtime friend, training partner and trusted lieutenant George Hincapie, was forced to give him up to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, he was certain that his “fate was sealed.” Armstrong said he owes an apology to many, including his former masseuse and personal assistant, Emma O’Reilly. He went on to acknowledge that he had lied repeatedly about his doping for years and it has been one of the worst-kept secrets for the better part of a week.

Armstrong, wearing a blue blazer and open-neck shirt, was direct and matter-of-fact and there were no tears and very few laughs. Armstrong said what he called “my cocktail” contained the steroid testosterone and the blood-booster erythropoetein, or EPO. He said blood-doping was so routine and described it as “like saying we have to have air in our tires or water in our bottles.” The cyclist said he doped to create a level-playing field in cycling, a statement that was described by WADA President John Fahey as a convenient way of justifying the fraud committed by the disgraced cyclist. Fahey added that the disgraced cycling champion didn’t appear remorseful and his assertion of creating a level-playing field “gives him no credibility” and added that excuse was not plausible.

His confession drew different responses from anti-doping officials. While his long-time nemesis USADA chief Travis Tygart said this was just a start and Lance has finally acknowledged that his cycling career was built on a powerful combination of doping and deceit, he also added that the cyclist will testify under oath about the full extent of his doping activities if he is sincere in his desire to correct his past mistakes. On the other hand, World Anti-Doping Agency director general David Howman said nothing short of a confession under oath – “not talking to a talk-show host,” will help Lance to get his lifetime ban from sanctioned events reconsidered.

In the past, the cyclist has long denied using performance enhancers and it was only after the U.S. Anti Doping Agency accused him of being at the heart of a sophisticated doping program that the “perfect world” of Lance Armstrong came to a halt. After the USADA report, the cycling icon lost nearly all his endorsements and was forced to walk away from the Livestrong cancer charity.

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Monday 14, Jan 2013

  Armstrong Apologizes To People In Cycling Community

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Armstrong Apologizes To People In Cycling Community

Disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong has made a series of phone calls and apologized directly to key people in the cycling community in what is seen by many as a valiant attempt by him to restore his image. On the eve of Monday’s taped interview with Oprah Winfrey, this is an attempt from the cyclist to prepare himself and others for what is anticipated to be a partial confession and for making amends with those to whom he lied and misled about sports doping.

The much-awaited interview of Armstrong with Oprah Winfrey will mark the first public comments he has made about the widespread allegations in a 1,000-page document that was released late last year by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency. The USADA report that was based on the testimony of 11 of Armstrong’s former teammates led to the cyclist being stripped of his seven consecutive Tour de France titles and banned for life from cycling.

The USADA “reasoned decision” concluded that Armstrong’s cycling heroics were the result of “the most sophisticated, professional and successful doping program that sport has ever seen.” The evidence included sworn statements of more than two dozen (24+) witnesses, including fifteen (15) professional cyclists, and a dozen (12) members of Armstrong’s cycling teams, including eleven (11) former teammates and his former soigneur (masseuse). The cyclist was accused of using and/or attempting use of prohibited substances and/or methods including EPO, blood transfusions, testosterone, corticosteroids and/or masking agents. Lance Armstrong was also accused of assisting, encouraging, aiding,  abetting, covering up and other complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations besides the possession of prohibited substances and/or methods including EPO, blood transfusions and related equipment (such as needles, blood bags, storage containers and other transfusion equipment and blood parameters measuring devices), testosterone, corticosteroids, and/or masking agents.

USADA charged the cyclist with violations of the following specific rules applicable to the possession of prohibited substances and/or methods: USOC NADP (and incorporated provisions of Code); USADA Protocol (incorporated provisions of Code or UCI ADR); UCI ADR 52, 54, 93 (1997-2000); UCI ADR 130, 131, 135 (2001-2004); UCI ADR 15.6 (2005-2008); UCI ADR 21.6 (2009-present); and Code Article 2.6 (2003-present). The anti-doping agency also Armstrong with violations of the following specific rules applicable to trafficking and attempted trafficking: USOC NADP (and incorporated provisions of Code); USADA Protocol (incorporated provisions of Code or UCI ADR); UCI ADR 3, 135, 136 (2001-04); UCI ADR 15.7 (2005-2008); UCI ADR 21.7 (2009-present); and Code Article 2.7 (2003-present).

In addition to that, the cyclist was charged with violations of the following specific rules applicable to administration and/or attempted administration: USOC NADP (and incorporated provisions of Code); USADA Protocol (incorporated provisions of Code or UCI ADR); UCI ADR 1, 2, 54, 93 (1997-2000); UCI ADR 3, 133 (2001-2004); UCI ADR 15.8 (2005-2008); UCI ADR 21.8 (2009-present); and Code Article 2.8 (2003-present). USADA went on to charge Armstrong with violations of the following specific rules applicable to aggravating circumstances: USOC NADP (and incorporated provisions of Code); USADA Protocol (incorporated provisions of Code or UCI ADR); UCI ADR 130 (4 years to life for intentional doping) (2001-2004); UCI ADR 305 (2009-present) and Code Article 10.6 (2009-present).

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Monday 07, Jan 2013

  Armstrong Calculating Price Of Confessing To Doping

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Armstrong Calculating Price Of Confessing To Doping

The New York Times has revealed that Lance Armstrong, the cyclist who shot to fame by winning seven consecutive Tour de France titles after surviving testicular cancer, is thinking on the lines of a possible forthcoming confession. The New York Times added that the cyclist met Travis Tygart, USADA’s chief executive, in an effort to mitigate the lifetime ban imposed on him for playing a lead role in doping. The New York Times reported that the disgraced cyclist has told associates and anti-doping officials he is considering making a public admission that he used blood transfusions and banned drugs during his cycling career to restore his credibility to some extent and become a competitive athlete again.

However, Tim Herman, Armstrong’s lawyer, told the paper: “Lance has to speak for himself on that.” Herman added that he had no knowledge of the cyclist considering a confession and said, “When, and if, Lance has something to say, there won’t be any secret about it.” Armstrong’s attorney, Tim Herman, told the newspaper, “I suppose anything is possible. Right now, that’s not really on the table.”

It is believed that the Texan rider might be thinking of a doping confession to reduce his lifetime ban from cycling and Olympic sport so he can return to competing in triathlons and elite running events.  Armstrong’s lifetime cycling ban does not allow him to compete in athletic events sanctioned by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency. Though the cyclist had lost most of his personal sponsorship worth tens of millions of dollars after the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) issued its reasoned decision against the cyclist, Armstrong still wields a fascination that still trumps people across the world and there may still be some value in the charred remains of his infamous achievements.

Some believe that the directors of Livestrong foundation that has been fatally wounded after the USADA report have reportedly beseeched him to make a confession so that the charity gets an opportunity to move on. The foundation may prove to be the biggest reason behind Armstrong’s confession as it is facing an image problem due to its association with its famous founder. The fact that the corporate sponsors who abandoned him might support him again if he confesses may also be a trigger to make a confession. The World Anti-Doping Code that allows for lightened punishment for those who fully detail their doping protocol in a confession may be the next best trigger for a complete confession.

As on today, there seems to be no end to his problems with all his sponsors abandoning him and the U.S. Department of Justice evaluating whether to join a federal whistle-blower lawsuit filed by former Armstrong teammate, Floyd Landis. The British newspaper The Sunday Times has sued the Texan rider to recover $500,000 paid to him to settle a libel lawsuit, while a Dallas-based promotions company has also said it wants to recover several million dollars paid to the cyclist in bonuses for winning the Tour de France.

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Saturday 03, Nov 2012

  WADA Would Not Appeal Against Armstrong Verdict

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Wada would not appeal against armstrong verdict

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) will not be appealing against the ban imposed on American cyclist Lance Armstrong, according to an announcement by the anti-doping agency.

Armstrong, the winner of seven Tour de France titles, was banned by the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) after testimony from former teammates, including Tyler Hamilton, George Hincapie, Frankie Andreu, and Floyd Landis, who all were involved in what the USADA called the most sophisticated doping program ever seen in sport. The ex-teammates of the disgraced cyclist testified that Armstrong used and even encouraged the use and provided performance enhancing drugs and threatened cyclists in the team who didn’t doped of losing their place in the team.

The evidence against Armstrong showed prolonged use of a range of performance enhancing drugs including erythropoietin (EPO), blood transfusions, testosterone, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, and masking agents, according to the USADA.

The 41-year-old Armstrong, a cancer survivor, has denied cheating and never failed a doping test but was stripped of all titles and given a lifetime ban after electing not to fight the charges made against him. The USADA banned Armstrong for life and stripped him of all his titles and results since August 1, 1998, a decision that was later ratified by the UCI, the governing body of cycling.

After the USADA sent the report to the the governing body of cycling, UCI, and World Anti-Doping Agency, they had the option of taking the matter to the Court of Arbitration of Sport (CAS) or ratify the sanctions imposed by USADA on the cyclist. The UCI said Lance had no place in cycling and annulled all his results besides banning him for life. Now, WADA that had the option to challenge the ruling made by USADA has joined USADA and UCI against the cyclist.

WADA President John Fahey said in a statement that the anti-doping agency has no concerns as to the complete process and the overwhelming weight of evidence against Lance Armstrong. Fahey added that the Armstrong doping scandal has resulted in a proper and right sanction for the cyclist and has served as a revelation to the world of sport for which USADA must be applauded. WADA also called on the governing body of cycling to disclose details of its independent investigation that it vowed to undertake after widespread doping revelations. Fahey said the anti-doping agency has had no communication from the UCI with regard to the Armstrong-reasoned decision, the UCI management decisions, or their upcoming inquiry and added that WADA would like to make a contribution to the inquiry, if it is established and resourced beyond reproach. Fahey further added that this is not a situation wherein just because an athlete didn’t return a positive test there was nothing for the UCI could do.

After being exposed as a drug cheat, Lance Armstrong has been asked to pay back millions of dollars in prize money, threatened with lawsuits, dropped by sponsors, and stepped down as the chairman of his charity foundation, Livestrong. The International Olympic Committee is even considering taking back his 2000 Olympic bronze medal.

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