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Thursday 17, Sep 2015

  Ferrari And Former Sky Doctor Named In WADA’s Banned List

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The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has named Michele Ferrari, Lance Armstrong’s long-term training guru, and Team Sky’s former doctor, Belgian Geert Leinders, in a list of 114 banned support personnel.

The 62-year-old Italian doctor was banned from working with Italian athletes in 2002 and was blocked worldwide by the United States Anti-Doping Agency case against disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong. USADA investigations revealed that Armstrong was given Testosterone, EPO, and blood transfusions by Michele Ferrari during the years when Armstrong won seven consecutive Tour de France titles. Later, Armstrong received a lifetime ban and was stripped of all his seven titles and later admitted to making use of banned performance enhancing drugs.

The case against Leinders was based principally on the testimony of Danish rider Michael Rasmussen and Levi Leipheimer of the United States. The two former Rabobank riders revealed the role of Leinders in doping when questioned by USADA in connection with Lance Armstrong in 2012. USADA charged Leinders with possession, trafficking and administering banned substances including testosterone, insulin, DHEA, erythropoietin, and corticosteroids. Leinders was also charged of administering blood transfusions and covering up anti-doping violations. Rasmussen admitted that Leinders provided assistance to him with blood transfusions during the 2004 and 2005 Tours de France and the 2007 Giro d’Italia. The Danish rider also said false medical certificates were written by Leinders so that he can use cortisone and also claimed that Leinders helped him dope with insulin. Leipheimer revealed the doctor assisted him dope with EPO at the 2002 and 2003 Tours de France.

The former Team Sky doctor, who worked with the Rabobank team until 2010 and as a freelance for Team Sky in 2011 and 2012, was banned for life by the United States Anti-Doping Agency for multiple doping violations.

Leipheimer and Rasmussen received reduced bans for their assistance with the inquiring agencies.

Some of the big names on the list are Trevor Graham and Guido Nigrelli, owner of the pharmacy at the centre of the Mantova investigation. Carlo Santuccione, who “assisted” Danilo Di Luca and Riccardo Riccò also finds a mention on the list.

WADA President, Sir Craig Reedie, said the anti-doping agency is increasingly of the belief that athletes do not dope alone, and that often there is a member of their entourage encouraging them to cheat. Sir Reedie also remarked that this new ‘Prohibited Association’ rule sends a clear message to athletes not to associate with individuals that have breached anti-doping rules as they could encourage them to cheat the system and to rob their fellow athletes of their right to clean sport.

Reedie added WADA, by publishing this list, is helping athletes know which individuals to evade if they are to avoid violating the rules themselves. The WADA President also said this list will also assist ADOs (Anti-doping Organizations) as it is their responsibility to advise their athletes of the support personnel that have ‘disqualifying status’ and the consequences of such association.

Athletes who are found working with the listed people would violate WADA’s Prohibited Association article 2.10 and face suspension.

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Sunday 17, Aug 2014

  Kreuziger Admits Working With Banned Ferrari, Sidelined By Tinkoff-Saxo

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Roman Kreuziger (Saxo-Tinkoff), winner of the 2013 Amstel Gold Race, has admitted to working with disgraced doctor Michele Ferrari. Kreuziger said he consulted the doping doctor from the autumn of 2006 through 2007.

Kreuziger claims that he was unaware that the controversial doctor had been banned. The cyclist said he believed Ferrari was one of the best coaches in the world and remarked he never doped. Ferrari has been banned twice for doping, including the Lance Armstrong doping scandal.

In 2002, Michele Ferrari was prohibited from working cyclists in Italy after allegations that he assisted riders to dope with Testosterone, EPO, and other banned methods or products.

Kreuziger was considered one of the biggest talents of the sport after winning the 2004 Junior Road World Championships and the 2008 Tour de Suisse at the age of 22. He won the 2009 Tour de Romandie after completing his first Grand Tour after finishing 21st in the Vuelta a España. Kreuziger won the Giro di Sardegna in 2010, finished third in Paris-Nice, and finished 9th overall in the Tour de France.

In June 2013, UCI first notified Kreuziger that Cycling Anti-Doping Foundation regarded his data as suspect and the rider subsequently informed his team. The team’s press release said Kreuziger was adamant that he never used doping methods or substances and added the team was satisfied through its own medical staff and independent verification that Roman’s blood profile had valid medical and scientific explanations other than the use of doping methods or substances and this was subsequently confirmed by the expert opinions Roman shared with the team.

Former Liquigas teammate of Kreuziger, Leonardo Bertagnolli pointed to Kreuziger in an affidavit dated May 18, 2011. Bertagnolli remarked he know many of his teammates went to Ferrari because we talked about it and the team knew: Franco] Pellizotti, Roman Kreuziger, Enrico Gasparotto, and Francesco Chicchi. A Saxo-Tinkoff representative remarked at that time that the team will support Kreuziger and let the national federation decide.

The Czech professional road bicycle racer for UCI ProTour team Team Tinkoff-Saxo was sidelined by his Tinkoff-Saxo team in June 2014 after he faced doping allegations. The team, in a statement published on its website, said the Union Cycliste Internationale is likely due to instigate disciplinary proceedings against (Kreuziger) arising from an alleged violation of its anti-doping rules due to abnormalities detected in his biological passport in 2011 and 2012. Meanwhile, Kreuziger denied he had taken any forbidden substances or used any forbidden methods and said that an independent inquiry concluded that his passport values were due to causes that were not due to the use of doping substances or methods.

The UCI’s Cycling Anti-Doping Foundation (CAFD) alleged that the blood passport profile of Kreuziger, when he rode for Astana, demonstrated abnormalities from March to August 2011 and from April 2012 until the end of that year’s Giro d’Italia.

Kreuziger pending further details is off the Tour team and will not compete in any other events. The rider will however not receive a provisionally suspension unless ordered by the UCI or the Czech federation.

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Monday 30, Jun 2014

  Tinkoff-Saxo Sidelines Kreuziger

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Roman Kreuziger has been sidelined by Tinkoff-Saxo team because of doping allegations. It was further disclosed that Kreuziger will not support Alberto Contador in the Tour de France.

According to a statement published on website of the team, the Union Cycliste Internationale is likely due to instigate disciplinary proceedings against Kreuziger arising from an alleged violation of its anti-doping rules due to abnormalities detected in his biological passport in 2011 and 2012.

In a press release, Roman Kreuziger denied taking any forbidden substances or using any forbidden methods and said that an independent inquiry concluded that his passport values were due to causes that were not due to the use of doping substances or methods. The Czech professional road bicycle racer for UCI ProTour team Team Tinkoff-Saxo remarked he asked the UCI for an extension, past the end of June 30 this month but was not allowed.

Tinkoff-Saxo team said in a statement the team has decided, in agreement with Roman, that he will not ride in any races including this year’s Tour de France until more information becomes available to the team and added though he won’t be racing for now, until more information becomes available to the team it will not provisionally suspend Roman unless required by the UCI or the Czech Federation.

It was alleged by the UCI’s Cycling Anti-Doping Foundation (CAFD) that the blood passport profile of Kreuziger revealed abnormalities from March to August 2011 and from April 2012 until the end of that year’s Giro d’Italia when Kreuziger rode for Astana. In June 2013, Kreuziger was notified by the UCI that CAFD considered his data as suspect and he thereafter informed his team. The team’s press release said Kreuziger was adamant that he never used doping methods or substances and added the team through its own medical staff and independent verification was satisfied that Roman’s blood profile had valid medical and scientific explanations other than the use of doping methods or substances and this was subsequently confirmed by the expert opinions Roman shared with the team.

Two exculpatory medical opinions were provided by Kreuziger to the UCI in October 2013 but the world governing body of cycling refused to accept his explanation for the passport abnormalities. Kreuziger provided a third opinion arguing that the profile fluctuation may not be attributed solely to doping methods and that the conclusions of CAFD’s Experts Panel had limited scientific supporting evidence. Kreuziger remarked in order to obtain a certain technical evaluation of the data in his biological passport, he should emphasize that the experts he appointed are trustworthy, independent and of three different nationalities and he requested an assessment from them that was absolutely and totally unbiased and as objective as possible.

Kreuziger, while racing for Liquigas, admitted to having worked with Michele Ferrari in his first year as a professional in 2013. The rider occupied the fifth place at Giro d’Italia in 2011 and at Tour de France in 2013.

The Tour de France starts on July 5 with Contador, a two-time winner, expected to be the main challenger to Chris Froome, last year’s champion.

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Saturday 27, Apr 2013

  Kreuziger Refuses To Answer Questions On Doping

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Kreuziger Refuses To Answer Questions On Doping

Czech professional road bicycle racer for UCI ProTour team Team Saxo-Tinkoff, Roman Kreuziger, refused to answer questions about alleged links to controversial Italian doctor Michele Ferrari.

The recently crowned Amstel Gold Race winner refused to entertain inquiries in both English and Italian from a handful of journalists before the team presentation ahead of Liège-Bastogne-Liège. The cyclist said he only wants to talk about the race and will speak about this theme after Romandie. Considered one of the biggest talents of the sport after winning the 2004 Junior Road World Championships and the 2008 Tour de Suisse at the age of 22, the 26-year-old Czech rider didn’t seem happy about the line of questioning and said he only wanted to talk about racing and directed questions toward the press officer of Team Saxo-Tinkoff. The cyclist then walked away and into a tent area where the media was not allowed to enter.

Team spokesman Anders Daamgaard said the Czech rider told him before the team presentation that he didn’t want to field questions about the alleged Ferrari links. The spokesman added that there is no official team statement on Kreuziger, and the Czech suggested he would speak about his past following the Tour de Romandie, April 23-28.

Kreuziger’s win at the Dutch classic puts him in the spotlight and revived questions about his alleged linked to Michele Ferrari, who has been banned for life by the United States Anti-Doping Agency.

Links between Ferrari and several former Liquigas riders were revealed by documents, via testimony of former Ferrari client Leonardo Bertagnolli, as part of USADA’s reasoned decision in the Lance Armstrong scandal. A former Liquigas rider, Bertagnolli, in a written affidavit in Italian, admitted that he worked with Ferrari with the knowledge and consent of Liquigas management and also claimed that Kreuziger was a Ferrari client, among others, including Franco Pellizotti and Enrico Gasparotto, all Liquigas riders at the time.

In 2009, Roman Kreuziger won the Tour de Romandie and was the victor of the Amstel Gold Race in 2013. Roman’s father, Roman Kreuziger Sr., was also a bicycle racer who won the Österreich Rundfahrt in 1991 and the Cyclocross Junior World Championships in 1983. After a successful amateur career which saw him win the Junior Road World Championships in 2004 and a stage of the Giro delle Regioni in 2005, Kreuziger turned professional in 2006 with Liquigas and took his first professional victory in the second stage of the Settimana Ciclistica Lombarda. In late 2007, the cyclist was also able to complete his first Grand Tour after finishing 21st in the Vuelta a España. In 2008, Roman Kreuziger finished second in the youth competition, and 12th overall in his first Tour de France. Roman in 2012 finished third in the Tirreno-Adriatico and entered the 2012 Giro d’Italia leading Team Astana with Paolo Tiralongo. The cyclist left Astana at the end of the 2012 season, and joined Team Saxo-Tinkoff on a three-year contract from the 2013 season onwards.

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Thursday 03, Jan 2013

  Doping Is Still A Problem In Cycling

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Doping Is Still A Problem In Cycling

The Italian investigating judge, Benedetto Roberti, who has uncovered key evidence against Dr. Michele Ferrari and a long list of his clients in an interview said a little has changed in cycling ever since the Lance Armstrong doping scandal. The judge added that new and undetectable versions of EPO and other doping products are still being used by professional, amateur, and even Gran Fondo riders.

While revealing his passion for cycling, Roberti said he has ridden numerous Gran Fondo events, where he has seen riders making the use of cortisone suppositories as they line-up for the start. The former military judge angered the Italian Olympic Committee anti-doping investigators when he refused to share evidence collected by him during his meticulous investigations. Some evidence has already emerged as part of the USADA Reasoned Decision documentation that brought an end to the glorified legacy of American cyclist Lance Armstrong, the winner of seven consecutive Tour de France titles, and prompted the world governing body of cycling to disqualify him from his seven Tour de France victories.

Talking about doping in every level of cycling, Roberti told Tuttobici magazine that he has seen things people cannot even imagine and riders are often considered the weakest link in all of this but the riders are responsible for what they do. He added that he has learnt not to trust some people and remarked that riders are the start and the end of it all and the rest is just a lot of talking. Roberti further said that we are dealing in cycling with scruple-less people who inject themselves with everything, without knowing what they are doing-products stolen from hospitals, from Eastern countries-without any guarantees on the quality. He also said that he was recently told by riders that there are substances in use that can’t be found by anti-doping tests such as Erythropoietin Z by Retacrit, also known as EPO Z, and a Chinese EPO that cannot be found in testes and there is also AICAR, that is brought in from the East as a powder and is apparently a kind of genetic doping that helps to reset muscle fibers after huge efforts and cannot be found in anti-doping tests either.

The Italian investigating judge called for a generation change and a culture change in cycling. Roberti is adamant that people like Bjarne Riis should have no place in cycling while referring to the Dane being allowed by the UCI to continue as a team manager with the Saxo-Tinkoff WorldTour team, despite his doping confession and links to the past. Tuttobici reported Roberti as saying that the world governing body of cycling should take the license of Bjarne Riis as he has confessed and the UCI actually allowed him to work as if nothing has happened and the cycling’s governing body should take a clear stance and for sure is responsible too. Roberti also added that we have got to teach young people that it’s more important to promote the good name of a sponsor rather than just easy wins.

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Monday 17, Dec 2012

  Michele Ferrari On His Defense

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Michele Ferrari On His Defense

Michele Ferrari, the notorious Italian physician banned for life by the U.S anti-doping agency, has offered his defense while denying charges of doping links and said he never saw the disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong dope.

The name of the doctor is out there as the one whose doping techniques were used by Lance Armstrong and his teammates to dominate cycling with seven Tour de France victories from 1999 to 2005. The United States anti-doping agency in its report against Armstrong and others named Michele Ferrari 480 times in their damning 200-page dossier on doping.

Eleven of the former teammates of Armstrong at the US Postal team gave witness testimonies to USADA and the document includes the line that doctor Ferrari was present and assisted during instances of prohibited blood doping and EPO use by USPS team members. The US Anti-Doping Agency gave lifetime bans to three of the six men named in the Lance Armstrong doping conspiracy case. Luis Garcia del Moral and Michele Ferrari who worked with Armstrong during his seven-year Tour de France reign and trainer Jose “Pepe” Marti worked with the rider’s US Postal Service team all received lifetime bans. The two other alleged conspirators, another doctor Pedro Celaya and former team boss Johann Bruyneel, had either requested a five-day extension to respond to the charges or asked for a full arbitration hearing to begin. The United States Anti-Doping Agency made a statement saying permanently banning these individuals from sport is a powerful statement that protects the current and next generation of athletes from their influence, and preserves the integrity of future competition.

The doctor has previously denied having a professional relationship with the 41-year-old Armstrong after 2005 but admitted to meeting and accepting payments from Lance Armstrong between 1996 and 2006 – totalling around $1m (£619,000), according to USADA. Ferrari dismissed key witness statements in October as “false accusations” and uncorroborated “visual testimony”. The cyclist was stripped of his seven Tour de France titles and given a lifetime ban by the United States Anti-Doping Agency, a decision that was later ratified by the UCI.

The woes of Ferrari don’t end here; the doctor is also subjected to an ongoing two and a half year doping investigation, in a different case, in his home region of Padua.

In an interview, Ferrari said that he has never seen any doping practice from Lance Armstrong and he has also not heard something like doping related to Lance Armstrong. He further added that Armstrong never asked him for information about doping and the USADA picked him as the Federal Investigation was able to demonstrate their doping practice, and to save themselves the witnesses agreed with the USADA conspiracy and added that there is no evidence, no smoking gun about the investigations. He added that his job is to advise athletes on the best way to train and propose to these athletes alternatives, perfectly legal alternatives, to the use of doping substances like high altitude training for instance rather than using Erythroprotein (EPO) but, not only this also the use of nutrition in a targeted way.

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Monday 03, Dec 2012

  Armstrong Doctor Linked To More Top Cyclists

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Armstrong Doctor Linked To More Top Cyclists

At least 15 more cyclists have reportedly been linked to the banned Italian sport doctor of Lance Armstrong in an intricate scheme of money laundering, tax evasion, and widespread doping. The Gazzetta dello Sport reported former Giro d’Italia winners Michele Scarponi and Denis Menchov, and this year’s Olympic champion Alexandre Vinokourov are under investigation for doping under the supervision of Dr. Michele Ferrari.

The Gazzetta cited documents from an inquiry led by Padua prosecutor Benedetto Roberti that detailed how Ferrari allegedly masterminded a $40 million operation where teams and riders avoided paying taxes by recycling money via Gibraltar, Monte Carlo, Switzerland, and South America. All charges were however denied by the cyclists and Ferrari.

For several years, Roberti has been leading a sweeping investigation of Ferrari and parts of which were used in the USADA report that detailed how Lance Armstrong and others used performance enhancing drugs to stay at the top. After the report was published, the Texan rider was banned for life and stripped of all his results from August 1, 1998. The 41-year-old Armstrong has acknowledged that Ferrari was his trainer until 2004 and the name of Ferrari was mentioned throughout the USADA report and was banned for life.

Doping is a crime in Italy and the Italian doctor was already cleared on appeal in 2006 of criminal charges of distributing banned products for athletes and remains barred for life by the Italian Cycling Federation under a 2002 ruling. The Italian doctor is reportedly under investigation again in Italy for criminal association, trafficking and administering doping substances, tax evasion, and money laundering.

The Gazzetta said microphones were hidden by investigators in the camper van that the Italian doctor used to have meetings with cyclists in remote areas of Italy and in Switzerland and a phone-tap conversation was printed by the newspaper between Italian professional road bicycle racer Michele Scarponi and and Ferrari inside the van in September 2010 during which Scarponi said he could win the following year’s Giro and the doctor replied that if he used a blood transfusion he had a chance. The cyclist finished second in the 2011 Giro but then was promoted to champion when Alberto Contador was stripped of the title for doping at the 2010 Tour de France and Vincenzo Nibali finished behind Scarponi. Scarponi was banned in 2007 for a period of 18 months for involvement in the Spanish doping scandal Operation Puerto.

Police also taped a September 2010 phone call between Denis Menchov (who won the Spanish Vuelta in 2005 and 2007 and raced with the Rabobank team from 2005-2010 and won the Giro in 2009) and agent Raimondo Scimone during which Menchov tells the agent that he wants “all the cyclists working with him followed by Ferrari,” according to the Gazzetta. In a statement to the paper, Scimone said he was never involved in doping or wrongdoing.

 This year’s Olympic champion Alexandre Vinokourov is also reportedly under investigation by Roberti and had served a two-year ban after testing positive for blood doping during the 2007 Tour de France. Others reportedly under investigation are Yaroslav Popovych and Volodymyr Bileka; Russian riders Alexandr Kolobnev, Vladimir Karpets, Vladimir Gusev, Mikhail Ignatiev; Czech rider Roman Kreuziger; and Italians Filippo Pozzato, Lorenzo Bertagnolli, Giovanni Visconti and Franco Pellizzotti.

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Friday 09, Nov 2012

  Italian Cyclist Suspended After Links To Ferrari Exposed

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Italian Cyclist Suspended After Links To Ferrari Exposed

Italian cyclist Michele Scarponi has been temporarily suspended by his Lampre-ISD team after he admitted to working with disgraced doctor Michele Ferrari.

The cyclist, who won the 2011 edition of the Giro d’Italia after Alberto Contador was stripped of his title following a positive test for the banned drug Clenbuterol, admitted last month that he had worked with the doctor following reports in Gazzetta dello Sport linking the duo.

Ferrari played a key role in the systematic doping program employed by Lance Armstrong’s US Postal and Discovery Channel teams between 1999 and 2005 and was handed a lifetime ban from working in professional sports in July 2012. Scarponi has been suspended on a temporary basis by Lampre-ISD even though the cyclist has not admitted to any connection with doping and to working with Ferrari before he joined the team. Meanwhile, the Italian Cycling Federation is also believed to have launched an investigation which may put Scarponi “out of action for some time”.

A spokesman for Lampre-ISD said the team was following its internal medical policy and Michele Scarponi has been suspended by the team doctor Carlo Guardascione. The suspension of the Italian cyclist began on October 25 when he released his statement and the Italian Cycling Federation has been notified of the suspension, the spokesman added.

Scarponi was previously banned for 18 months for his involvement in Operation Puerto in 2007. Operación Puerto was the code name of a Spanish Police operation against the doping network of Doctor Eufemiano Fuentes; the operation resulted in a scandal that involved several of the world’s most famous cyclists at the time. Scarponi admitted he was Zapatero while Jörg Jaksche admitted he was Bella in Fuentes’ files while Ivan Basso who was cleared by Italian authorities due to lack of evidence admitted involvement in the scandal to the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI).

The Italian professional road bicycle racer was able to secure a contract with Acqua & Sapone despite been implicated in the Operación Puerto doping case in 2006. The next year he was implicated again in the Operación Puerto case and confessed his role in the case on May 8, 2007. Thereafter, he was provisionally suspended on May 15, 2007. Diquigiovanni-Androni announced on June 13, 2008 that they had signed Scarponi for the coming two seasons with the cyclist completing the ban and won the Tirreno-Adriatico and also won 2 stages in the Giro d’Italia in 2009.

The Italian cyclist was able to award himself a second place finish in the Tirreno-Adriatic and was able to finish fourth overall in the Giro d’Italia where Scarponi was able to took a prestigious victory in the epic stage 19 and went on to a win in the Settimana Ciclistica Lombarda. After moving in 2011 to Lampre-ISD, Scarponi won the Giro del Trentino and the Volta a Catalunya and finished  second overall behind Alberto Contador in the Giro d’Italia. After Contrador was stripped of the title for using Clenbuterol which he blamed it on contaminated meat, Scarponi was assigned the title. He finished 4th overall while trying to defend his Giro title in 2012 with Canadian Ryder Hesjedal taking the overall win.

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Tuesday 30, Oct 2012

  Former Swiss Rider Denies Doping Network Links

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Former swiss rider denies doping network links

An accomplished rider in both the Grand Tour events and one-day races, Switzerland’s Tony Rominger, has denied his management company having links to what is believed by Italian investigators as a network designed to finance doping, aid evasion of taxes, and money laundering.

Italian officials are investigating the activities of sports doctor Michele Ferrari in the wake of a report against cyclist Lance Armstrong and his USPS team from the US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) wherein the agency accused Armstrong of overseeing a widespread doping program. The cyclist was stripped of his seven Tour de France titles and banned for life, a decision that was recently endorsed by the governing body of cycling, the UCI.

It was alleged by two Swiss newspapers that cash from operations of Ferrari went through the management company of Tony Rominger. Rominger issued a statement saying, “Tony Rominger formally contests these accusations of tax evasion and money laundering being reported in the media,” and added that he had no contact with Ferrari for “very many years.” Rominger added that he had never been called upon to provide information to the penal, civil or administrative judicial system — either Swiss or Italian.

The accusations were immediately and vehemently denied by the professional road racing cyclist who won the Vuelta a España in 1992, 1993, and 1994, and the Giro d’Italia in 1995. The cyclist also won the Mountains Jersey twice in the Vuelta a Espana, in 1993 and 1996 and the the Points Jersey in the 1993 Vuelta a Espana. In the 1992 World Championship Road Race, Rominger was placed fourth behind Gianni Bugno of Italy, Laurent Jalabert of France, and Dimitri Konyshev of Russia. In the 1993 Tour de France, Rominger finished second behind Miguel Indurain of Spain. The cyclist had a successful career but was overshadowed by the prowess of Indurain (winner of  five consecutive Tours de France from 1991 to 1995, the fourth to win five times) in the Grand Tours.

Meanwhile, Indurain has openly extended his support of Lance Armstrong and said he believes in the innocence of Armstrong. He went on to dispute the strength of evidence against the cyclist and remarked that he believes Armstrong will come back and appeal and try to show that he played fair for all those years. Indurain also took issue with the investigation process and challenged the validity of the evidence produced against the seven-time Tour de France champion, Armstrong who was stripped of all his titles and banned for life by the US Anti-doping Agency (USADA) relying on witness testimony from 11 former teammates and 15 other riders.

Despite the fact that the governing body of cycling accepted the sanctions imposed on Armstrong by USADA, the UCI president, Pat McQuaid, delivered a different message to the world by calling USADA evidence and methods into questions and raising grounds for a possible appeal – either by Armstrong himself, or by the World Anti-Doping Agency – against the conclusions of the report. McQuaid also challenged the USADA jurisdiction in stripping Armstrong of his titles under the WADA Code and publishing its report after the cyclist waived his right to a Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) hearing.

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